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First of all, the oral tests used at this institution have been formally administered at the end of each term in order to measure what the students have actually achieved after one particular time of learning. Such kind of test is called a final achievement test by Hughes (1989) and McNamara (2000), progress and grading test by Bachman&Palmer (1996), course test by Davies (2000), or final or attainment test by Heaton (1990). All the teachers or test writers as well as assessors have always known that they should elicit the students’ actual ability to use the language in real communication, and especially their language knowledge and ability they are required to grasp by the end of one particular term. Therefore, oral tests at this institution are explicitly identified as achievement ones from the very start, and both the teachers and the assessors have been aware of this.

However, neither the Department nor the English Section has produced a formal document including explicit classification of students’ language proficiency levels, particular areas of language ability or construct to be assessed and sets of TLU tasks identified for all the levels. Also, they have not established any criteria for test quality evaluation.

Secondly, as regards the operationalization process, the test designers have not kept in hand the official document mentioned above with descriptions of different levels of language proficiency in terms of the students’ language knowledge, i.e. a level scale (discussed in 2.3.1) and with areas of language ability to be tested. Additionally, the teachers or test writers have not received any detailed guidelines or instructions on number of test tasks included in the test(s) as well as test task specifications. Nevertheless, they have been informed about the administration time of the test(s) in advance in order to ensure punctual test production and submission.

Therefore, the teachers or test designers have freely produced the speaking tests in their own way, and most of the oral tests conducted make use of merely one oral test type – Tests where the learner prepares in advance – and one elicitation technique – oral report – and consist of one test task/part (See Appendix 1- these three tests were used for the same class for three terms in succession). Furthermore, as shown in these three tests, none of the test task/question is attached with neither external prompts helping the students make a structured presentation nor explicit instructions quantifying language knowledge and ability needed to perform the task.

Thirdly, concerning the administration process, there has been no detailed guidance in the form of either a meeting among the group of administrators and assessors or an official document regarding the students’ language proficiency level, i.e. level scale mentioned above, and no guidelines on method(s) of marking students’ performance on each test task. In short, the assessors are never informed of or provided with these two important things before test administration.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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