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First of all, the oral tests used at this institution have been formally administered at the end of each term in order to measure what the students have actually achieved after one particular time of learning. Such kind of test is called a final achievement test by Hughes (1989) and McNamara (2000), progress and grading test by Bachman&Palmer (1996), course test by Davies (2000), or final or attainment test by Heaton (1990). All the teachers or test writers as well as assessors have always known that they should elicit the students’ actual ability to use the language in real communication, and especially their language knowledge and ability they are required to grasp by the end of one particular term. Therefore, oral tests at this institution are explicitly identified as achievement ones from the very start, and both the teachers and the assessors have been aware of this.

However, neither the Department nor the English Section has produced a formal document including explicit classification of students’ language proficiency levels, particular areas of language ability or construct to be assessed and sets of TLU tasks identified for all the levels. Also, they have not established any criteria for test quality evaluation.

Secondly, as regards the operationalization process, the test designers have not kept in hand the official document mentioned above with descriptions of different levels of language proficiency in terms of the students’ language knowledge, i.e. a level scale (discussed in 2.3.1) and with areas of language ability to be tested. Additionally, the teachers or test writers have not received any detailed guidelines or instructions on number of test tasks included in the test(s) as well as test task specifications. Nevertheless, they have been informed about the administration time of the test(s) in advance in order to ensure punctual test production and submission.

Therefore, the teachers or test designers have freely produced the speaking tests in their own way, and most of the oral tests conducted make use of merely one oral test type – Tests where the learner prepares in advance – and one elicitation technique – oral report – and consist of one test task/part (See Appendix 1- these three tests were used for the same class for three terms in succession). Furthermore, as shown in these three tests, none of the test task/question is attached with neither external prompts helping the students make a structured presentation nor explicit instructions quantifying language knowledge and ability needed to perform the task.

Thirdly, concerning the administration process, there has been no detailed guidance in the form of either a meeting among the group of administrators and assessors or an official document regarding the students’ language proficiency level, i.e. level scale mentioned above, and no guidelines on method(s) of marking students’ performance on each test task. In short, the assessors are never informed of or provided with these two important things before test administration.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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