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3.2.1 the checklist

The situation analysis with a checklist (as seen on page 31) that has been developed based on Bachman and Palmer’s framework for test development reviewed in 2.3 involved such four factors as (1) the test design stage, (2) the test operationalization stage, (3) the test administration stage, and (4) the use of test results.

1. Test Design Stage
Are the purposes of oral tests explicitly identified?
Which kind(s) do the oral tests include? Selection PlacementDiagnosisAchievement
Is a set of the TLU tasks presented?
Is there an official document including detailed instructions on students’ language proficiency levels?
Is there an official document including detailed instructions on construct or language ability to be measured?
Are there any criteria set for evaluating test quality?
2. Test Operationalization Stage
Are there any official guidelines on the number of test tasks to be included in a particular speaking test?
Are the specifications of each test task provided?
3. Test Administration
Are the assessors informed of how to mark the test tasks before the test is administered?
Is the testing environment well prepared?
Is a supportive test taking environment maintained?
Are the instructions for each test task made clear to the students?
4. Use of Test ResultsIs the information from test results used for
...grading the students?
...evaluation of the effectiveness of instructional programmes?
...the teachers’ modification of teaching methods and materials?

3.2.2 the observation

Observation of a particular achievement speaking test is expected to help collect evidence that supplements the analysis of the current oral test development process, namely the operationalization and administration stages. The observation enables the researcher to directly collect data firsthand, and the data gathered describes the observed phenomena as they take place in their natural settings (Nachmias, 1996, p.206); therefore, this kind of information is surely of great reliability.

The observation focused on the oral test type(s) with underlying elicitation techniques being used (See Appendix 2), time spent on the students’ test performance, and interaction between the assessors and test takers recorded in a tape and then transcribed (See Appendix 3).

3.1.3 the questionnaire

In order to elicit TNU staff’s perceptions of oral language testing, questionnaires were formulated, and then delivered to the staff members. Questionnaires, in this thesis, are chosen as an adequate way to well elicit respondents’ knowledge, for the respondents are not put under pressure of time, i.e. they answer questions in their own time and at their own pace, and in an anonymous style of responding they undoubtedly feel free and comfortable to answer questions (Gillham, 2000; Nachmias, 1996).

The respondents include 12 English language teachers of TNU, who are involved in the development process of oral tests. They are at the age of 27 to 50. They all had tertiary training in language teaching in different educational institutions throughout Vietnam.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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