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Moreover, the specific types and amounts of resources required may differ according to the design of a specific test, and available resources may vary from one situation to another. Test practicality thus can only be determined for a specific testing situation. Obviously, to determine the practicality of a given test, test developers must take into account of the resources required to develop a test, and the management and allocation of the resources available.

2.6 summary

Chapter 2 has considered the main features of oral testing, particularly spoken language and considerations on how to elicit students’ overall speaking ability. Production of spoken language is examined in a continuum of the language functions and a success of meaning negotiation. Next, the communicative approach to assessing production of spoken language is considered one of the best ones. And Bachman&Palmer’s theoretical framework for test development is reviewed as the basis for description and evaluation of current oral testing practices at TNU. Also, this framework is used as the main foundation on which suggestions for improvement of TNU oral testing problems are based. In addition, major considerations in operationalizing speaking tests include a level scale, selection of test types, elicitation techniques, and a marking key. Finally, for a test to be valid, it must also be reliable and practical. Validity is associated with accuracy of measurement, and reliability refers to the consistency of measurement. Practicality, more or less important, concerns the ways in which the test will be implemented in a given situation, or whether the test will be used at all.

Chapter 3: methodology

Chapter 2 has reviewed major issues in oral language testing in order to provide an adequate understanding of its theory, which serves as the basis for investigation of the current practices at TNU. In particular, the discussion of Bachman and Palmer’s theoretical framework for developing tests presents the basis for the evaluation of oral testing practices at TNU, and for suggestions for improving its drawbacks. In order to investigate TNU current oral testing practices, the researcher (1) analysed the present process of oral test development at this institution, and (2) surveyed the staff’s perceptions of oral language testing. This chapter consists of three sections. The two research questions are first raised. The second sub-section respectively presents the data collection instruments used to carry out (1)&(2). The other sub-section describes the procedure for conducting the study.

3.1 research questions

The study aims at answering the two following questions.

1. What are strengths and weaknesses of the oral test development procedure at TNU?

2. What are the English teaching staff’s perceptions of oral language testing?

3.2 data collection instruments

In order to answer the two research questions, the researcher collected information from two sources: (1) a situation analysis and (2) a questionnaire. Firstly, the situation analysis was carried out with a checklist based on Bachman and Palmer’s framework for test development. To ensure the reliability of the information from the situation analysis, one end-of-term speaking test was observed and tape-recorded. Secondly, the questionnaire was developed to elicit the staff’s perceptions of oral language testing. Therefore, this sub-section respectively describes these three instruments

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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