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__ FeCl 3 + __ FeCl 2 + __ NH 3 + + __ H 2 O __ Fe 3 O 4 + __ NH 4 Cl size 12{"__" ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{3} } +"__" ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{2} } +"__" ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } rSup { size 8{+{}} } +"__"H rSub { size 8{2} } O rightarrow "__" ital "Fe" rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{4} } +"__" ital "NH" rSub { size 8{4} } ital "Cl"} {}

The surfactant used in this synthesis is tetramethylammonium hydroxide ( N ( CH 3 ) 4 OH size 12{N \( ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{4} } ital "OH"} {} ). The hydroxide ( OH size 12{ ital "OH" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ) ions formed in solution tend to bind to the iron sites on the magnetite particles, creating a net negative charge on each particle. The positively-charged tetramethylammonium ions will then associate with the negatively-charged magnetite particles, forming a kind of shell around each magnetite particle. This charged shell raises the energy required for the particles to agglomerate, stabilizing the suspension.

With the help of nanotechnology, liquid crystal displays have become very popular in recent years. Liquid crystal displays (LCD) were first produced by RCA in 1971 and are composed of two glass plates with a liquid crystal material between them. The liquid crystal material is an organic compound that is in a state between a liquid and a solid. Their viscosities are similar to those of liquids and their light scattering and reflection properties are similar to solid crystals. Liquid crystals must be geometrically highly

anisotropic (having different optical properties in different directions)-usually long and narrow -but also become an isotropic liquid (same optical properties in all directions) through a stimulus such as a magnetic field, electric field, temperature, or pressure.

Liquid crystals have several common phases. The simplest liquid crystal phase is called the nematic phase where the molecules spontaneously order with long axes roughly parallel. It is characterized by a high degree of long range orientational order but no translational order. An uniformly aligned nematic has a preferred direction, often described in terms of a unit vector called the director. The type of phase that a liquid crystal possesses ultimately determines its applications.

Is it really necessary to describe the smetic phase? Many of the students were confused by this.l

Figure 2 Nematic, smectic-A, and smectic-C liquid crystal phases

A subclass of nematic phases that will be investigated in this lab due to its pressure and temperature sensitive properties is the cholestric phase. The distance over which the director rotates to equal 360°is referred to as the chiral pitch and is normally on the order of a few hundred nanometers, or precisely the wavelength of visible light. This allows liquid crystals to selectively reflect light of wavelengths equal to the pitch length, so that a color will be reflected when the pitch is equal to the corresponding wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. Changes in the director orientation between successive layers modifies the pitch length resulting in an alteration of the wavelength of reflected light according to the temperature. The angle at which the director changes can be made larger, and thus tighten the pitch, by increasing the temperature of the molecules, hence giving them more thermal energy. Similarly, decreasing the temperature of the molecules increases the pitch length of the chiral nematic liquid crystal. This makes it possible to build a liquid crystal thermometer that displays the temperature of its environment by the reflected color.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry spring. OpenStax CNX. Mar 10, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10512/1.9
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