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__ FeCl 3 + __ FeCl 2 + __ NH 3 + + __ H 2 O __ Fe 3 O 4 + __ NH 4 Cl size 12{"__" ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{3} } +"__" ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{2} } +"__" ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } rSup { size 8{+{}} } +"__"H rSub { size 8{2} } O rightarrow "__" ital "Fe" rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{4} } +"__" ital "NH" rSub { size 8{4} } ital "Cl"} {}

The surfactant used in this synthesis is tetramethylammonium hydroxide ( N ( CH 3 ) 4 OH size 12{N \( ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{4} } ital "OH"} {} ). The hydroxide ( OH size 12{ ital "OH" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ) ions formed in solution tend to bind to the iron sites on the magnetite particles, creating a net negative charge on each particle. The positively-charged tetramethylammonium ions will then associate with the negatively-charged magnetite particles, forming a kind of shell around each magnetite particle. This charged shell raises the energy required for the particles to agglomerate, stabilizing the suspension.

With the help of nanotechnology, liquid crystal displays have become very popular in recent years. Liquid crystal displays (LCD) were first produced by RCA in 1971 and are composed of two glass plates with a liquid crystal material between them. The liquid crystal material is an organic compound that is in a state between a liquid and a solid. Their viscosities are similar to those of liquids and their light scattering and reflection properties are similar to solid crystals. Liquid crystals must be geometrically highly

anisotropic (having different optical properties in different directions)-usually long and narrow -but also become an isotropic liquid (same optical properties in all directions) through a stimulus such as a magnetic field, electric field, temperature, or pressure.

Liquid crystals have several common phases. The simplest liquid crystal phase is called the nematic phase where the molecules spontaneously order with long axes roughly parallel. It is characterized by a high degree of long range orientational order but no translational order. An uniformly aligned nematic has a preferred direction, often described in terms of a unit vector called the director. The type of phase that a liquid crystal possesses ultimately determines its applications.

Is it really necessary to describe the smetic phase? Many of the students were confused by this.l

Figure 2 Nematic, smectic-A, and smectic-C liquid crystal phases

A subclass of nematic phases that will be investigated in this lab due to its pressure and temperature sensitive properties is the cholestric phase. The distance over which the director rotates to equal 360°is referred to as the chiral pitch and is normally on the order of a few hundred nanometers, or precisely the wavelength of visible light. This allows liquid crystals to selectively reflect light of wavelengths equal to the pitch length, so that a color will be reflected when the pitch is equal to the corresponding wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. Changes in the director orientation between successive layers modifies the pitch length resulting in an alteration of the wavelength of reflected light according to the temperature. The angle at which the director changes can be made larger, and thus tighten the pitch, by increasing the temperature of the molecules, hence giving them more thermal energy. Similarly, decreasing the temperature of the molecules increases the pitch length of the chiral nematic liquid crystal. This makes it possible to build a liquid crystal thermometer that displays the temperature of its environment by the reflected color.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry spring. OpenStax CNX. Mar 10, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10512/1.9
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