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This module introduces the reader to multiple sequence alignments. The ClustalW alignment tool is used to align sequences of troponin I from different human tissues and sequences of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR) from several different species.

Sequence alignments can be used to study the relationship(s) between sequences in sets of more than two sequences. This application is particularly useful when studying the relationships between a similar type of gene product that is expressed by different organisms, like analyzing CFTR sequences from several different species, or when studying similar, yet divergent, sequences within the same organism, as the variance in troponin I isoforms in Homo sapiens.

Often, a primary focus of a multiple sequence alignment is to identify, within several related sequences, regions that are highly conserved in identity orsimilarity, and therefore probably have functional and/or structural significance. Many factors affect the analysis of conserved regions withinrelated sequences, such as the number of sequences included in the analysis, and the ratio of the number of very similar (almost identical) sequences to thenumber of more distantly related sequences. Divergent sequences can cause problems in a multiple sequence alignment. It is more difficult to identifythe correct alignment when two sequences that are related throughout part of the sequence also contain large sections that diverge. Therefore, the errorrates in the alignment increase as divergence increases. These errors in the alignment can cause the related part of the sequences to show lower similaritythan they actually have, and this sort of error is often amplified in subsequent steps. ClustalW (1), a commonly used multiple sequence alignment program, addresses the problemsassociated with alignment of divergent sequences in several ways. Individual weights are assigned to each sequence in a partial alignment such thatnear-duplicate sequences are down-weighted and divergent sequences are up-weighted. Also, the amino acid substitution matrices at different alignmentstages are chosen according to the divergence of the sequences to be aligned. Residue-specific gap penalties and locally reduced gap penalties in hydrophilicregions increase the penalty for opening new gaps in regions of regular secondary structure. Therefore, it increases the likelihood that gaps willoccur in loop regions than in highly structured regions such as alpha helices and beta sheets. Highly structured regions are commonly very important to thefold and function of a protein, and so divergence is often biologically less likely in these areas. For similar reasons, existing gaps receive locallyreduced gap penalties to encourage the opening up of new gaps near the existing ones. These features have been designed into ClustalW to produce multiplesequence alignments that are biologically meaningful.

First, use the example of analyzing the variance in troponin I isoforms in Homo sapiens to get acquainted with multiple sequence alignments with ClustalW. ClustalW is available at many bioinformatics web sites, but the EBI site is chosen here, for its niceinterface and graphical display. Accept the default values on the submission form, andscroll down the page until the box for pasting in the sequences to be aligned appears. Now, the troponin I sequences must be obtained. For the sake of time, instead of searching with the string "troponin I human",the pertinent accession codes are supplied for this exercise. Open a new browser window to the NCBI home page . Locate the "Search" box at the top of the page and select"Protein" to search the protein database. Type in the accession codeTNNI3_HUMAN in the box to the right, and click on "Go". The results of this search will become part of the search history. Select the history link from the menuunder the query box to verify this. Now, search "Protein" again, using the accession code TNNI2_HUMAN, then perform one last search using the accession codeTNNI1_HUMAN. As an illustration of the search history function in Entrez, combine the results of these three searches. Do this using the boolean operator "OR" inbetween the number assigned to each search in the history listing. For instance, if the Search History gave the following list, #3 Search TNNI1_HUMAN 17:44:55 #2 Search TNNI2_HUMAN 17:44:49#1 Search TNNI3_HUMAN 17:41:47 then "#1 OR #2 OR #3" would be the search string. The boolean operatorOR is specifying that all results included in any of the above searches be combined. Using the boolean AND operator would specify only results that are common toall three searches, which in this case would yield zero results. To view the results, click on "GO" once you have entered the search string into the query box.Now, the combined search should return all three of the desired troponin I isoforms. Check the box to the left of each accession code for all three results.Just above the list of results, find the region on the left that states "Display Summary" and change "Summary" to "FASTA". This should yield the amino acid sequences in FASTA format for the3 proteins that were selected. Copy and paste each sequence into the ClustalW window, pressing return after pasting each entry. There does not have to be aline space between entries, as long as the FASTA identifying line starts on a new line. However, it does not hurt to have a line space between entries,either. Note that the numbered search description line from Entrez is not part of the FASTA format. The numbered search description line will looksomething like this, 1: P19237. Reports Troponin I, slow ...[gi:1351298] and should be omitted from the ClustalW search query. Also, check that the description header for the sequencein FASTA format does not take up more than one line. If it does, shorten the description so that it only occupies one line.Press the "Run" button, and click on the link for the browser window that displays the results, if this option is given. A text page will appearwith the alignment scores.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Bios 533 bioinformatics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 24, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10152/1.16
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