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What is motivation?

Motivation —the energy or drive that gives behavior direction and focus—can be understood in a variety of ways, each of which has implications for teaching. Since modern education is compulsory, teachers cannot take students’ motivation for granted, and they have a responsibility to ensure students’ motivation to learn. Somehow or other, teachers must persuade students to want to do what students have to do anyway. This task—understanding and therefore influencing students’ motivations to learn—is the focus of this chapter. Fortunately, as you will see, there are ways of accomplishing this task that respect students’ choices, desires, and attitudes. Like motivation itself, theories of it are full of diversity.

One perspective on motivation comes from behaviorism, and equates underlying drives or motives with their outward, visible expression in behavior. Most others, however, come from cognitive theories of learning and development. Motives are affected by the kind of goals set by students—whether they are oriented to mastery, performance, failure avoidance, or social contact. They are also affected by students’ interests, both personal and situational. And they are affected by students’ attributions about the causes of success and failure—whether they perceive the causes are due to ability, effort, task difficulty, or luck.

A major current perspective about motivation is based on self-efficacy theory, which focuses on a person’s belief that he or she is capable of carrying out or mastering a task. High self-efficacy affects students’ choice of tasks, their persistence at tasks, and their resilience in the face of failure. It helps to prevent learned helplessness, a perception of complete lack of control over mastery or success. Teachers can encourage high self-efficacy beliefs by providing students with experiences of mastery and opportunities to see others’ experiences of mastery, by offering well-timed messages persuading them of their capacity for success, and by interpreting students’ emotional reactions to success, failure and stress.

An extension of self-efficacy theory is expectancy-value theory, which posits that our motivation for a specific task is a combination of our expectation of success and how important or valuable the task is to us. Yet another related idea is self-determination theory, which is based on the concept that everyone has basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness to others. According to the theory, students will be motivated more intrinsically if these three needs are met as much as possible. A variety of strategies can assist teachers in meeting these needs.

Behavioral views of motivation

Sometimes it is useful to think of motivation not as something “inside” a student driving the student’s behavior, but as equivalent to the student’s outward behaviors. This is the perspective of behaviorism. In its most orthodox form, behaviorism focuses almost completely on what can be directly seen or heard about a person’s behavior, and has relatively few comments about what may lie behind (or “underneath” or “inside”) the behavior. When it comes to motivation, this perspective means minimizing or even ignoring the distinction between the inner drive or energy of students, and the outward behaviors that express the drive or energy. The two are considered the same, or nearly so.

Questions & Answers

different between demand and supply
Francis Reply
what is the demand and supply of Qd=40,000-6P Qs=14P-28,000 the equilibrium price
Rocky Reply
3400
Ram
what is economics by Adams smith
Diana Reply
economics by Adams Smith's
Francis
to earn wealth more and more
Ram
what are the poor performance of the monopolies
Thandolwethu Reply
it controls only price or production not both a same time
Ram
Difference between demand and supply
Kareem Reply
demand talks about the consumers and supply also talks about producers
Bright
demand talks about the relationship between price and the quantity demanded for a certain goods and supply talks about the relationship between price and quantity supply of a certain goods .
Mutala
demand show the quality demanded at different price n time whereas supply show the quality ready to sell in market by seller at different price n time.
Ram
describe the issue gain from trade will improve economic growth and living standard.
Allison Reply
discribe gain from trade will improve economic growth and living standard
Allison
discribe gain from trade will improve economic growth and living standard
Allison
what is the outcome of exchange rate?
Allison
gain from international trade to a country which import are elastic n export are inelastic
Ram
what is utility
Roberta Reply
the capacity of a good to satisfy our want.
Ram
what is the relationship between the elasticity of demand and total revenue
Atedago Reply
I don't know
Taofeek
negative. but for unit elasticity of demand, the relationship doesn't exist between them.
Ali
what is income elasticity of demand
Esther Reply
income elasticity of demand measure the degree of responsiveness of demand for a commodity to a small change in the income of the consumer
Atedago
monopolistic competition has all except which of the following basic characteristics?
Sharon Reply
what are the Features of money
Abubakarr Reply
how to calculate the elasticity of supply?
Asnaira Reply
PES=Qs2-Qs1/Qs1÷P2-P1/P1
Soko
why is economics important
Gifted Reply
why is it important
Gifted Reply
for what?
Vicky
economics
Gifted
what is demand
Mutala Reply
Demand Is Anything that A Customer are willing and able to buy at different price level.
Basit
what demand schedule
Mutala
demand schedule is a tabular representation of different quantities of commodities that consumers are willing to purchase at a specific price and time while other factors are constant.
MEOW
A full account of the demand, or perhaps we can say, the state of demand for any goods in a given market at a given time should state what the volume (weekly) of sales would be at each of a series of prices. Such an account, taking the form of a tabular statement, is known as a demand schedule.
MEOW
State the type of elasticity of demand
Emmanuel
price elasticity of demand . and it refers to the degree of responsiveness of change in quantity demanded for a commodity to a change in price if the commodity itself
Mutala
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Oneonta epsy 275. OpenStax CNX. Jun 11, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11446/1.6
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