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Is

  • bread
  • butter

a list?

Is

  • butter

a list?

Is there a list that follows butter in the above?

A non-empty list is a list that has an element called first and a list called rest.

Note that in the above formulation, the rest of a list is itself a list! The definition of a list is an example of what we call a recursive definition: the list contains a substructure that is isomorphic to itself.

List design and the composite design pattern

The UML diagram below captures the recursive data definition of the list data structure.

Uml diagram of a list

A list can be represented using the composite design pattern

This definition translates into Java code as follows.

/** * Represents the abstract list structure.*/ public interface IList {}
/** * Represents empty lists.*/ public class MTList implements IList {} /** * Represents non-empty lists.*/ public class NEList implements IList {private Object _first; private IList _rest;}

The above is an example of what is called the composite design pattern . The composite pattern is a structural pattern that prescribes how to build a container object that is composed of other objects whose structures are isomorphic to that of the container itself. In this pattern, the container is called a composite. In the above, IList is called the abstract component, MTList is called the basic component and NEList is called the composite. The composite design pattern embodies the concept of recursion , one of the most powerful thinking tool in computing. (There is a subject in theoretical computer science and mathematics called "recursive function theory," which studies the meaning of what computing means and in effect defines in the most abstract form what a computer is and what it can and cannot do.)

List creation

Now that we have defined what a list is, we ask ourselves how we can process it? What can we do with a list? The above code makes it clear that there is not a whole lot we can do with a list besides instantiating a bunch of MTList objects via the call new MTList() (why?). Now that we are using the full Java language, we need to write a constructor for NEList in order to instantiate non-empty list objects with appropriate first and rest. The Java code for NEList now looks as follows (note how the comments are written).

/** * Represents non-empty lists.*/ public class NEList implements IList {private Object _first; private IList _rest;/** * Initializes this NEList to a given first and a given rest.* @param f the first element of this NEList. * @param r the rest of this NEList.*/ public NEList(Object f, IList r) {_first = f; _rest = r;} }

The list structure as coded in the above is completely encapsulated , that is, all internal components (if any) of a list are private and cannot be accessed by any external code. Using the appropriate constructors, we can make a bunch of lists to store data but we cannot retrieve data nor do anything with these lists. In Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) parlance, the list is said to have no behavior at all. As such they are of no use to us.

List processing

In order to perform any meaningful list processing at all, we need to program more "intelligence" into the list structure by adding appropriate methods to the list to provide the desired behaviors. So instead of asking what we can do with a list, the right question to ask in OOP is "what can a list do for us?" Let us start by presenting a few simple tasks that we want a list to perform and try to figure out how an "intelligent" list would carry out such tasks via some role acting.

In class role-acting exercises:

  • Compute the length of a list.
  • Compute the sum of a list that holds integers.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of object-oriented programming. OpenStax CNX. May 10, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10213/1.37
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