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In a sense, we have been talking about parallelism from the beginning of the book. Instead of calling it “parallelism,” we have been using words like “pipelined,” “superscalar,” and “compiler flexibility.” As we move into programming on multiprocessors, we must increase our understanding of parallelism in order to understand how to effectively program these systems. In short, as we gain more parallel resources, we need to find more parallelism in our code.

When we talk of parallelism, we need to understand the concept of granularity. The granularity of parallelism indicates the size of the computations that are being performed at the same time between synchronizations. Some examples of parallelism in order of increasing grain size are:

  • When performing a 32-bit integer addition, using a carry lookahead adder, you can partially add bits 0 and 1 at the same time as bits 2 and 3.
  • On a pipelined processor, while decoding one instruction, you can fetch the next instruction.
  • On a two-way superscalar processor, you can execute any combination of an integer and a floating-point instruction in a single cycle.
  • On a multiprocessor, you can divide the iterations of a loop among the four processors of the system.
  • You can split a large array across four workstations attached to a network. Each workstation can operate on its local information and then exchange boundary values at the end of each time step.

In this chapter, we start at instruction-level parallelism (pipelined and superscalar) and move toward thread-level parallelism , which is what we need for multiprocessor systems. It is important to note that the different levels of parallelism are generally not in conflict. Increasing thread parallelism at a coarser grain size often exposes more fine-grained parallelism.

The following is a loop that has plenty of parallelism:


DO I=1,16000 A(I) = B(I) * 3.14159ENDDO

We have expressed the loop in a way that would imply that A(1) must be computed first, followed by A(2), and so on. However, once the loop was completed, it would not have mattered if A(16000), were computed first followed by A(15999), and so on. The loop could have computed the even values of I and then computed the odd values of I. It would not even make a difference if all 16,000 of the iterations were computed simultaneously using a 16,000-way superscalar processor. Interestingly, this is not as far-fetched as it might seem. On a single instruction multiple data (SIMD) computer such as the Connection CM-2 with 16,384 processors, it would take three instruction cycles to process this entire loop. If the compiler has flexibility in the order in which it can execute the instructions that make up your program, it can execute those instructions simultaneously when parallel hardware is available.

One technique that computer scientists use to formally analyze the potential parallelism in an algorithm is to characterize how quickly it would execute with an “infinite-way” superscalar processor.

Not all loops contain as much parallelism as this simple loop. We need to identify the things that limit the parallelism in our codes and remove them whenever possible. In previous chapters we have already looked at removing clutter and rewriting loops to simplify the body of the loop.

This chapter also supplements [link] , in many ways. We looked at the mechanics of compiling code, all of which apply here, but we didn’t answer all of the “whys.” Basic block analysis techniques form the basis for the work the compiler does when looking for more parallelism. Looking at two pieces of data, instructions, or data and instructions, a modern compiler asks the question, “Do these things depend on each other?” The three possible answers are yes, no, and we don’t know. The third answer is effectively the same as a yes, because a compiler has to be conservative whenever it is unsure whether it is safe to tweak the ordering of instructions.

Helping the compiler recognize parallelism is one of the basic approaches specialists take in tuning code. A slight rewording of a loop or some supplementary information supplied to the compiler can change a “we don’t know” answer into an opportunity for parallelism. To be certain, there are other facets to tuning as well, such as optimizing memory access patterns so that they best suit the hardware, or recasting an algorithm. And there is no single best approach to every problem; any tuning effort has to be a combination of techniques.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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