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Introduction

Because of the world’s current affinity towards data-driven industries, machine learning has become an exceedingly popular area of study and research in recent years, especially in regards to image processing and recognition. The most common learning tools in image recognition are neural networks, which consist of a series of connected layers of “neurons”.

In a standard neural network, each layer takes an input vector, every element of which is connected to each neuron in the layer with a specific “weight”. Moreover, each neuron in a layer has a specific “bias” associated with it, designed so that the neuron will only produce a meaningful output if the linear combination of weighted inputs (the neuron’s excitation) is greater than that bias. This output is determined by passing the neuron’s net excitation to an activation function. With the inputs propagating through each layer of the network in this fashion, the neural network produces an output corresponding to both an input and the parameters (weights and biases) of the network. The network then learns through a Stochastic Gradient Descent algorithm, which updates all of the network’s parameters in attempts to minimize a cost function that defines the relationship between a network’s produced output and a desired output. This entire training process is repeated for a specified number of epochs to improve accuracy.

A convolutional neural network (CNN) is similar to a standard neural network except it adds convolutional layers at the beginning. Convolutional layers arrange neurons into grids, and convolve those grids with input images. The parameters of the convolutional layers are the weights of each neuron in each filter’s kernel and the bias applied to each filter. The output of the convolutional layers is then passed to the fully connected layers of a standard neural network.

Our project focused on applying convolutional neural networks to handwritten digits, allowing us to build a system that was able to recognize the digits 0-9 with a great deal of accuracy. Because of the simplicity of this problem, we were better able to understand the structure of the tool used to solve the problem. With this deeper understanding of convolutional neural networks, we are better equipped to solve more complex problems.

Project motivation

Because machine learning has become such a significant area of study and research, we were interested in pursuing a project that would give us an introduction to the concept. This, and because of our collective interest in image recognition, is why we chose to explore convolutional neural networks. We chose handwritten digits as our dataset because it was a set readily available to us, and because it was a simple enough problem where we could focus our efforts on understanding the learning process, network structure, and functionality of each layer rather than having to waste effort delving into the nuances of a complicated dataset, such as facial or animal recognition.

Previous work

Convolutional neural networks are an extremely saturated field, with many papers and studies done on them. Many different methods for improving their performance have been explored by researchers; such as independently training a set of networks and having them vote on the most likely output. We used the results of all of this research to formulate a structure for our network and to postulate new methods for improving performance, such as knowledge transfer between networks.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
Wellington
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Source:  OpenStax, Handwritten digit recognition using convolutional neural networks. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11922/1.6
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