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Venus williams perspiring on the tennis court

This is a photo of Venus Williams, the famous tennis player, executing a hard tennis swing.
The body has critically important mechanisms for balancing the intake and output of bodily fluids. An athlete must continuously replace the water and electrolytes lost in sweat. (credit: “Edwin Martinez1”/Wikimedia Commons)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Identify the body’s main fluid compartments
  • Define plasma osmolality and identify two ways in which plasma osmolality is maintained
  • Identify the six ions most important to the function of the body
  • Define buffer and discuss the role of buffers in the body
  • Explain why bicarbonate must be conserved rather than reabsorbed in the kidney
  • Identify the normal range of blood pH and name the conditions where one has a blood pH that is either too high or too low

Homeostasis, or the maintenance of constant conditions in the body, is a fundamental property of all living things. In the human body, the substances that participate in chemical reactions must remain within narrows ranges of concentration. Too much or too little of a single substance can disrupt your bodily functions. Because metabolism relies on reactions that are all interconnected, any disruption might affect multiple organs or even organ systems. Water is the most ubiquitous substance in the chemical reactions of life. The interactions of various aqueous solutions—solutions in which water is the solvent—are continuously monitored and adjusted by a large suite of interconnected feedback systems in your body. Understanding the ways in which the body maintains these critical balances is key to understanding good health.

Questions & Answers

starnd of MRI and ?why
ruha Reply
what is haploid
Sonnie Reply
half of diploid(2n) n no of chromosomes I.e human have 46 no of chromosomes and its haploid is 23
Sayed
Half of diploid
ruha
exactly
Sayed
thnx
ruha
welcome
Sayed
Are you a medical student?
Sayed
yes
ruha
which year?
Sayed
2endyear
ruha
okay
Sayed
what are oxygen free radical
Fateemah Reply
are very reactive molecules that can react with every cellular component
Irene
is a molecule that contains atleast one unpaired electron
kevin
is here any one from 1st year of Medicine I need a partner for Anatomy
Sayed
yes please
Job
can you text me on my Gmail imsmk004
Sayed
hi
Eugine
hello
Sayed
what is anatomy
Ovbiagele Reply
is the study of structure of the body
Saifullah
is the study of the structure and function of the human body
Irene
can we put catheter in superficial circumflex iliac artery?
Sayed Reply
yes
Andrei
yes
Irene
yes
MONISH
what is anatomy
Eunice Reply
describe how penile erection occurs
Eunice
the study of the parts of an organism
Ayisi
is the study of the bones
Zainab
that's osteology
Ayisi
Ok
Emmanuel
How many hair do we have
Emmanuel
hair?
christine
why it's not advisable to not to give an intramuscular
Jamila Reply
well l think intramuscular injection takes a long time to get to the cells of the body for action whislt an intravenous injection goes straight to the heart and then pump to the cells /tissues quickly.So in a nutshell, intramuscular is slower and takes a longer time to work
Anna
it depends on the route of administration of drugs in an instance where the drugs to be given needs a fast action then intravenous is given but if opposite then intramuscular is advised
Deborah
Some times it is not fast in action, and again due to some complications of IM such as injection abcess, and pain.
Idris
why in IM ingestion should not be more than 2ml
Fatou
because of tissues inflammation the high dose of more than 2mls may cause
Clifford
TSH secretion is inhibited by stress and cortisol
Hadi Reply
I want to join the talk also
Lontia
hi
Muhammad
Hello my friend. What do you want to chat about?
mehmet
Hello my friend.
mehmet
why it's not advisable to not to give an intramuscular injection on the shoulder more than 2ml
Fatou
what are the factor that stimulates bile secretion
Linda Reply
secretin ,gestrin , glucagon, cholecytokinin-pancreozymin,
Leila
bile secretion is stimulate by secretin . bile secrete in to gall bladder .gall bladder store and concentrate bile...
Anoop
what happens to the rate of breathing during acidosis? why?
Rachael Reply
the breathing rate increases
Azapa
The breathing rate decreases due to accumalative amounts of carbondioxide. Or un balanced amounts of oxygen and carbondioxide
farouq
what is robotic arms
Amos Reply
explain on the cellular respiration
Racheal Reply
who's the founder of anatomy
Cleopatra Reply
The founder of anatomy is called herophilos
Thiep
is the study of the human body
Odwa
does blood moves through the heart
Ezeonu Reply
yes
Chifuniro
yape
LifeLine
can varicose vein cause harsh health complications ?
LifeLine
No 👎.
ring
Since dendrites are at the terminal end of a sensory neurone allowing it to transmit impulses to the relay neurone... what is at the other terminal end of the sensory neurone that connects it to the sensory organ?
Emmanuel Reply
The sensory organs have receptors which detect the stimulus then transmits impulses to the neurones via synaptic transmission. Meaning dendrites connect the sensory neurones to the receptors in the organ.
Cindah

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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