# Introduction

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Module for ELEC 301 project

## What is matrix completion

In 2006, Netflix issued a million dollar challenge to the world:

“Is there a computer algorithm that can accurately predict a user’s movie preferences?”

In the contest, a data matrix was given that contained ratings of thousands of movies from thousands of examinees, but it was only 2% completed. Contestants for this Netflix Challenge had to complete the matrix and provide the optimal algorithms for the task.

The Netflix Prize was won in 2009, but the ideas and algorithms generated to complete matrices remain vast and powerful in real world applications. Simply put, the Matrix Completion algorithm can be used for any areas that involve using a data matrix.

From a more scientific perspective, the 2008 paper, Exact Matrix Completion via Convex Optimization by Candes and Recht formalized a majorization minimization algorithm for matrix completion. Eric Chi’s 2014 article Getting to the Bottom of Matrix Completion and Nonnegative Least Squares with the MM Algorithm provides a more grounded framework for the problem and explains the mathematical concepts behind matrix completion.

A visual representation of matrix completion.

A visual representation of matrix completion.

## When does matrix completion work

Given a sparse matrix with movies along one axis and users along another, the algorithm had to predict how those users would rate movies they have not seen. The solution, known as Matrix Completion, provided a good estimate of sparse data, provided it satisfied the following:

1. The matrix must be low rank
2. The unobserved indices in the matrix must be uniformly distributed

In terms of the Netflix Problem, the matrix was extremely sparse -- with millions of users and movies, less than 2% of the matrix was actually filled. The matrix also followed the above assumptions, specifically that there are a few “types” of people who watch Netflix (an action movie lover, a rom-com fanatic, etc.), making it low rank, and that each user’s reviews are spread uniformly throughout the matrix.

## Characterizing the problem

Often, in the real world, these idealities are not upheld. It is very rare to find a matrix that is both perfectly uniform and low rank. In order to better understand matrix completions’ application to the real world, our project aimed to stretch the second requirement and better characterize the algorithm’s limits.

Specifically, we decided to focus on the requirement that the unobserved indices in the matrix must be uniformly distributed. How uniform do the unobserved entries need to be? At what point does matrix completion “stop working”?

Even more importantly, what does a plot of the error look like as a function of uniformity? We know that non-uniform data will result in a predicted matrix that is very dissimilar to the actual matrix, and we know that uniform data will result in a predicted matrix that very similar to the actual data, but what happens in between? Does a small amount of non-uniformity result in an unusable matrix, or can matrix completion continue to work under less than ideal conditions?

## Real world implications

While it is important to characterize algorithms to have a better theoretical understanding of how and when they work, this research has very salient real world applications as well.

Imagine an old picture with non-uniform noise distributed throughout it -- maybe one area of the photo is particularly noisy. If matrix completion can work in the conditions described previously, it would be able to reconstruct those images.

Even more importantly, matrix completion is used to predict cancer survival rates, among other medical applications. There is no guarantee that this data is uniform, but maybe matrix completion can still be trusted in these situations despite this limitation.

#### Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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