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Powerful bulldozers, fire engines and cranes use hydraulic power to lift heavy loads easily. A liquid is carried from a pump by means of pipes to cylinders where the liquid pushes valves/pistons out with great force. The pistons force the shovel into the soil and a heavy load of soil can thus be lifted. (A valve causes air or a liquid to move in one direction, but also prevents air or water from flowing back again.)

The advantage of making use of air pressure is that air is clean, freely available and safe under low pressure. Under high pressure air can be very dangerous. By nature air is resilient and this can cause a problem

Hydraulic systems are sometimes better than pneumatic systems because motion can be obtained more easily. When a leak occurs in a hydraulic system, it could be very messy.


To investigate a hydraulic and pneumatic system

[LO 1.3]


Two syringes of equal size.

A plastic tube of about 10 cm that will fit tightly over the opening of both syringes.


Draw out the plunger (piston) of one syringe and push in the plunger of the other syringe.

Connect the two syringes by means of the plastic tube.

Push in the plunger of one syringe.

Draw that plunger out again.


When one of the plungers is pushed in, the plunger of the other syringe is pushed out by the same distance. When the plunger of the one syringe is pulled out, the piston of the other syringe is sucked in by the same distance in the tube.


To replace air with water or oil

[LO 1.3]


How do the syringes that are filled with water compare with the syringes filled with air? Which system works best?


The pneumatic/hydraulic system works better.


To investigate the effect of syringes of different sizes on each other

[LO 1.3]


For example, connect a 10 ml syringe to a 20 ml syringe.

Push in the plunger of the small syringe and observe how many mm the plunger of the big tube moves out.

Also pull the plunger of the small syringe out and observe how many mm the plunger of the big tube moves in.


When a small cylinder has half the volume of a big cylinder, the plunger of the big cylinder moves (half/quarter of) the distance of what the small cylinder moves.

The force exerted by the big cylinder is (less/more), namely half as much (more/less).


[LO 1.3]

Now connect a big syringe with two smaller syringes, for example a 20 ml syringe with two 10 mm syringes by using a T-joint connection. The plunger in the big syringe must be pulled out and the plungers of the smaller syringes must be pushed in.

Push the plunger of the big syringe in and observe how many ml the plungers of the

smaller syringes move up.

Now push in the plungers of the smaller syringes and observe how many ml the plunger of the big syringe moves up.


Because the smaller syringes together have the same volume as the big syringe, their plungers move up (half the/the same) distance as the plunger of the big syringe when it is pushed in.

The force that is exerted in the big syringe is (a quarter/half) less in each small syringe.


In industry cylinders are used to perform the same tasks. If a pneumatic cylinder must be used often, a compressor with a control valve is used to let air into the cylinder. The cylinders are mechanically connected to the tube with an attachment and to the syringe with a pivot.


Learning outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Technological Processes and SkillsThe learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and communication technologies.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.3 performs, where appropriate, scientific investigations about concepts relevant to a problem, need or opportunity using science process skills:planning investigations;conducting investigations;processing and interpreting data;evaluating and communicating findings

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11005/1.1
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