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Australian Aborigines still suffer economic prejudice, social disruption and systematic discrimination. The possibility of an Aboriginal being arrested is 22 times greater than the chance of arrest of any other Australian.

The Saudi Arabian government has refused to grant recognition to the 23 000 Iraqi refugees within their borders after the Gulf War. They are conti

nuously referred to as “guests”.

Thousands of members of the Dinka tribe from the southern parts of the Sudan have been transported to the north as slaves. There the women and girls are raped and boys are forced to serve in the army. Some are compelled to take Arab names and to convert to Islam.

China has been repressing the Tibetans for five decades and men, especially those from ethnic minorities like the Ulgurs are subjected to sexual torture. Then we also have the situation in the Middle East and the tragic lack of tolerance between Jews and Palestinians.

Countries like Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, France, Japan and South Africa are singled out for their harsh action against asylum seekers and refugees. China has been repressing the Tibetans for five decades and men, especially those from ethnic minorities like the Ulgurs are subjected to sexual torture. Then we also have the situation in the Middle East and the tragic lack of tolerance between Jews and Palestinians.

Dr Desmond Tutu, former chair

person of the WCC and Anglican arch

bishop, has on occasion said, “No one is born as a racist”. Racism is taught. It is therefore possible for people to learn not to be racist.

- Translated from an article in Die Burger , August 2001 by Jannie Ferreira -


Map of the World


1. Refer to a map of the World (SOURCE B) and an atlas and apply colour to indentify all the countries mentioned in the article as places where racism is rife (SOURCE B).

2. List examples of racism like those mentioned in the article.

3. Provide one example of something that you regard as racism in each of the following areas:

a. At school
b. In your community
c. In your country
d. Among your friends

4. Refer to the article for help in drawing up your own definition of racism.

5. Which of the incidents mentioned in the article seem to you to be the worst violation of human rights? Explain the motivation behind your answer.

6. Think about this for a moment and then write down any other example of racism that you are able to identify in South Africa or in the world at present.


Learning outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Historical investigation

The learner is able to use research skills to investigate both the present and the past.

Assessment standards (ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 investigates a topic by asking key questions and identifies a variety of relevant sources to explore this topic [finding sources];

1.2 asks significant questions to evaluate the sources (e.g. to identify bias and stereotypes, omissions and gaps) [working with to sources];

1.3 analyses the information in sources [working with sources];

1.4 presents an independent line of argument in answering questions posed, and justifies (using evidence) the conclusions reached [answering the question];

1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources; uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicating the answer].

LO 2

Knowledge and Understanding of History

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of history.

We know this when the learner:

2.1 places events, people and changes in the periods of history studied within chronological framework [chronology and time];

2.2 identifies categories of cause and effect (e.g. immediate and long-term, direct and indirect)

[cause and effect];

2.3 explains and analyses the reasons for and results of events in history [cause and effect];

2.4 recognises that change and development does not always mean progress [change and continuity].

LO 3

Interpretation of History

The learner is able to interpret aspects of history.

We know this when the learner:

3.1 understands the contested nature of content, and that historians construct histories when writing about events from the past [source interpretation];

3.2 constructs an interpretation based on sources, giving reasons for own interpretation [source interpretation];

3.3 analyses issues which influence the way history has been written [influences on interpretation];

3.4 explains the ways in which symbols are used to remember events and people from the past, and how oral histories can contribute to our understanding of the symbols [representation of the past].

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11063/1.1
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