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Families can keep water clean in the home by:

  • storing drinking water in a clean, covered container
  • avoid touching clean water with unclean hands
  • taking water out of the container with a clean ladle or cup
  • having a tap on the water container
  • not allowing anyone to put their hands into the container or to drink directly from it
  • keeping animals away from stored water.

If there is uncertainty about the safety of the drinking water, local authorities should be consulted.

Cleaning food

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Avoiding animal contact with food

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Preserving food

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Most vital immunizations

What are immunizations?

Immunizations, also called vaccinations, are given to protect you from diseases. Each vaccine contains small amounts of aweakened disease organism or its products, which usually are given by injection. Your immune system develops antibodies to fight the disease,which then recognize and attack the organisms if you are exposed to them in the future. Sometimes an immunization does not completely prevent thedisease, but it will significantly reduce its severity. Some immunizations are given only once, while others require severaltreatments over a period of time.

Why get immunized?

There are several reasons to keep childrens' immunizations current:

  • Being immunized protects you. Diseases still exist and can infect anyone who has not been vaccinated.
  • Being immunized protects those around you. A small number of people cannot be immunized because they have other health problems, such assevere allergies. This leaves them susceptible to diseases. Others are not protected from diseases because they do not develop immunityafter having vaccinations. If most people are immunized, it reduces the chance of these nonimmune people contracting the disease.
  • Immunizations cost very little-much less than treating the illnesses they prevent.The risks are low. Reactions to immunizationsare usually mild and don't last long.
  • Immunizations reduce the risk of epidemics.

What immunizations are recommended?

The standard immunization schedule includes vaccines for:

  • Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DTaP).
  • Polio (inactivated poliovirus vaccine, or IPV).
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR).
  • Chickenpox (varicella).
  • Hepatitis B (Hep B).
  • Hepatitis A (Hep A).
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).
  • Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) for children younger than 2 years of age.
  • Influenza.

The standard immunization schedule begins at birth. Immunizations are spaced throughout a baby's first 18 months; some arerepeated between the ages of 4 and 6. Very few immunizations are needed after this age-just those given yearly (such as a flu shot) or on a regular basisthroughout adulthood (such as a tetanus shot).

All immunizations should be kept up-to-date. Additional vaccinations may be needed when traveling to certain parts ofthe world.

What reactions may result from being immunized?

Minor side effects

Side effects from vaccines are generally minor, if they occur at all. They may include:

  • Redness, mild swelling, or soreness where the shot was given.
  • Slight fever.
  • Drowsiness, irritability, and poor appetite in some babies.
  • A mild rash 7 to 14 days after chickenpox or MMR immunization.
  • Temporary joint pain after the MMR vaccine.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Health education course. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10330/1.1
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