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Held et al. found evidence to support their hypothesis. The informed pigs were capable of remembering and relocating buckets of food. When given access to empty buckets and buckets with food that they had been shown previously, they showed a significant preference for the food-filled buckets. When the larger, more dominant pigs were paired with the informed pigs, they inspected food buckets that had just been visited by the informed pigs more often than would be expected by chance. In over half the trials, the dominant pig displaced the informed pig from the bucket it was investigating, which was statistically significant. Non-informed dominant pig spent less time searching for food when paired with an informed subordinate pig than when they foraged alone. Thus, dominant pigs utilized the scrounger strategy, and this strategy was successful. Feral pigs have also been found to use producer and scrounger strategies. Subordinate feral pigs are more likely than dominant pigs to find food sites, which dominant pigs benefit from (Held et al., 2000).

Why do captive pigs exhibit foraging-like behaviors?

Captive domesticated pigs are provided with food and thus do not need to forage. However, they still spend large amounts of their time exhibiting foraging-related behaviors such as rooting, sniffing, biting, and chewing on edible and inedible materials. Often, they are provided with hay so they may carry out these behaviors (Studnitz et al., 2007). When deprived of material suitable for these behaviors, pigs perform stereotypies , which are fixed repetitive actions indicative of boredom or frustration (Grandin, 2009). In pigs, stereotypies may include chewing metal bars on their crates, pacing, and chewing with nothing in their mouths.

The importance of foraging behaviors and the relationship between pig stereotypies and inability to forage are well established. When pigs kept on concrete floors were allowed access to soil outdoors, they immediately began to root (Day et al., 1995). Pigs with nose rings do not root, presumably because the pressure of the ring causes pain when rooting (Bornett, 2003). However, when pigs’ nose rings were removed, they resumed rooting (Studnitz et al., 2003). Pigs prevented from rooting were found to spend approximately the same amount of time performing stereotypies as other pigs spend rooting (Day et al., 1996).

This suggests that biting and chewing non-edible materials and rooting are related to boredom and the desire to explore surroundings. However, stereotypies and foraging behaviors increase when food is depleted, suggesting that some of these behaviors are hunger related.

Day et al. explored the reasons behind these behaviors by offering domestic pigs three tubes to chew. The first tube released water. Because the pigs were given unlimited access to water, chewing on this first tube indicated exploratory behavior. The second tube released a saccharin solution, which tastes sweet but has no nutritional value. The third tube released a sucrose solution, which provided the pigs with a sweet tasting and nutritious drink. Some pigs were put on a low feeding schedule (restricted access to food) while others were put on a high feeding schedule (unrestricted access to food). The researchers’ results are shown in [link] .

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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