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Held et al. found evidence to support their hypothesis. The informed pigs were capable of remembering and relocating buckets of food. When given access to empty buckets and buckets with food that they had been shown previously, they showed a significant preference for the food-filled buckets. When the larger, more dominant pigs were paired with the informed pigs, they inspected food buckets that had just been visited by the informed pigs more often than would be expected by chance. In over half the trials, the dominant pig displaced the informed pig from the bucket it was investigating, which was statistically significant. Non-informed dominant pig spent less time searching for food when paired with an informed subordinate pig than when they foraged alone. Thus, dominant pigs utilized the scrounger strategy, and this strategy was successful. Feral pigs have also been found to use producer and scrounger strategies. Subordinate feral pigs are more likely than dominant pigs to find food sites, which dominant pigs benefit from (Held et al., 2000).

Why do captive pigs exhibit foraging-like behaviors?

Captive domesticated pigs are provided with food and thus do not need to forage. However, they still spend large amounts of their time exhibiting foraging-related behaviors such as rooting, sniffing, biting, and chewing on edible and inedible materials. Often, they are provided with hay so they may carry out these behaviors (Studnitz et al., 2007). When deprived of material suitable for these behaviors, pigs perform stereotypies , which are fixed repetitive actions indicative of boredom or frustration (Grandin, 2009). In pigs, stereotypies may include chewing metal bars on their crates, pacing, and chewing with nothing in their mouths.

The importance of foraging behaviors and the relationship between pig stereotypies and inability to forage are well established. When pigs kept on concrete floors were allowed access to soil outdoors, they immediately began to root (Day et al., 1995). Pigs with nose rings do not root, presumably because the pressure of the ring causes pain when rooting (Bornett, 2003). However, when pigs’ nose rings were removed, they resumed rooting (Studnitz et al., 2003). Pigs prevented from rooting were found to spend approximately the same amount of time performing stereotypies as other pigs spend rooting (Day et al., 1996).

This suggests that biting and chewing non-edible materials and rooting are related to boredom and the desire to explore surroundings. However, stereotypies and foraging behaviors increase when food is depleted, suggesting that some of these behaviors are hunger related.

Day et al. explored the reasons behind these behaviors by offering domestic pigs three tubes to chew. The first tube released water. Because the pigs were given unlimited access to water, chewing on this first tube indicated exploratory behavior. The second tube released a saccharin solution, which tastes sweet but has no nutritional value. The third tube released a sucrose solution, which provided the pigs with a sweet tasting and nutritious drink. Some pigs were put on a low feeding schedule (restricted access to food) while others were put on a high feeding schedule (unrestricted access to food). The researchers’ results are shown in [link] .

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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