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Several domesticated piglets suckling.
Piglets suckling. Creative Commons-Licensed.<http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sau_mit_ihren_Ferkeln.jpg>

Number of aggressive interactions compared to proximity.
After Thomsen, et al., 2010

Thomsen et al. explain that this is because when pigs are foraging at a medium or far distance from each other, a subordinate pig has more time to react between the time a dominant pig chooses to feed from the subordinate pig’s bucket and the time it gets to that bucket. The subordinate pig can quickly abandon its bucket, avoiding a confrontation. When buckets are close together, a dominant pig can choose to feed from a subordinate pig’s bucket and get there before the subordinate pig can move.

Duration of aggressive events compared to proximity.
After Thomsen, et al.

This was supported by the finding that on average, fights between pigs were shorter when buckets were close together ( [link] ). When buckets were close together, a dominant pig would begin a fight and a subordinate pig would back down quickly. When buckets were far apart, there were fewer of these short fights because the subordinate pig had time to leave before the dominant pig could initiate a fight. This suggests another possible reason why wild pigs are more aggressive in the winter- in the winter, the small amount of food available is clumped together so pigs must forage close together. There is a low cost of moving, so dominant pigs may move often and fight with subordinate pigs that do not have time to move out of the way.

The pigs in this study followed optimal foraging theory. Pigs moved between patches (buckets) more frequently when costs were lower (the distance between buckets was smaller). This also explains why there were more aggressive interactions when buckets were closer together; pigs were more likely to move and therefore more likely to have to compete for an occupied bucket.

When food is limited and foragers are in a social hierarchy, social foraging theory predicts that different individuals should play different roles. Dominant animals can seek out food for themselves or take food from their subordinates. Finding food expends more energy than taking it from others, so dominant animals are likely to adopt a “ scrounger ” strategy in which they exploit their subordinates. Since subordinate animals cannot take food from higher-ranked individuals, they have no choice but to use a “ producer ” strategy in which they find food and eat as much as possible before it is taken from them (Giraldeau and Caraco, 2000).

Held, et al. conducted an experiment to test if pigs follow the producer-scrounger model. First, they took pigs to food sources and trained them to relocate them. These sources were buckets full of food in a pen also containing empty buckets. When it was clear that these “informed” pigs were able to remember where the full buckets were, they were paired with heavier “uninformed” pigs that did not know where the food was. The researchers predicted that the larger uninformed pigs would follow a scrounger strategy by following the informed pigs and taking food from them. (Held et al., 2000)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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