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Several domesticated piglets suckling.
Piglets suckling. Creative Commons-Licensed.<http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sau_mit_ihren_Ferkeln.jpg>

Number of aggressive interactions compared to proximity.
After Thomsen, et al., 2010

Thomsen et al. explain that this is because when pigs are foraging at a medium or far distance from each other, a subordinate pig has more time to react between the time a dominant pig chooses to feed from the subordinate pig’s bucket and the time it gets to that bucket. The subordinate pig can quickly abandon its bucket, avoiding a confrontation. When buckets are close together, a dominant pig can choose to feed from a subordinate pig’s bucket and get there before the subordinate pig can move.

Duration of aggressive events compared to proximity.
After Thomsen, et al.

This was supported by the finding that on average, fights between pigs were shorter when buckets were close together ( [link] ). When buckets were close together, a dominant pig would begin a fight and a subordinate pig would back down quickly. When buckets were far apart, there were fewer of these short fights because the subordinate pig had time to leave before the dominant pig could initiate a fight. This suggests another possible reason why wild pigs are more aggressive in the winter- in the winter, the small amount of food available is clumped together so pigs must forage close together. There is a low cost of moving, so dominant pigs may move often and fight with subordinate pigs that do not have time to move out of the way.

The pigs in this study followed optimal foraging theory. Pigs moved between patches (buckets) more frequently when costs were lower (the distance between buckets was smaller). This also explains why there were more aggressive interactions when buckets were closer together; pigs were more likely to move and therefore more likely to have to compete for an occupied bucket.

When food is limited and foragers are in a social hierarchy, social foraging theory predicts that different individuals should play different roles. Dominant animals can seek out food for themselves or take food from their subordinates. Finding food expends more energy than taking it from others, so dominant animals are likely to adopt a “ scrounger ” strategy in which they exploit their subordinates. Since subordinate animals cannot take food from higher-ranked individuals, they have no choice but to use a “ producer ” strategy in which they find food and eat as much as possible before it is taken from them (Giraldeau and Caraco, 2000).

Held, et al. conducted an experiment to test if pigs follow the producer-scrounger model. First, they took pigs to food sources and trained them to relocate them. These sources were buckets full of food in a pen also containing empty buckets. When it was clear that these “informed” pigs were able to remember where the full buckets were, they were paired with heavier “uninformed” pigs that did not know where the food was. The researchers predicted that the larger uninformed pigs would follow a scrounger strategy by following the informed pigs and taking food from them. (Held et al., 2000)

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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