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For example, we interpret an 8-bit binary word b 7 b 6 b 5 b 4 b 3 b 2 b 1 b 0 as an integer x b 7 2 7 b 6 2 6 b 1 2 b 0 b 7 2 7 i 0 6 2 i b i in the 2's complement representation, and x ranges from -128 ( 2 7 ) to 127 ( 2 7 1 ). Several examples:

binary decimal
00000000 0
00000001 1
01000000 64
01111111 127
10000000 -128
10000001 -127
11000000 -64
11111111 -1

When x is a positive (negative) number in 2's complement format, x can be found by inverting each bit and adding 1 . For example, 01000000 is 64 in decimal and -64 is found by first inverting the bits to obtain 10111111 and adding 1 , thus -64 is 11000000 as shown in the above table. Because the MSB indicates the sign of the numberrepresented by the binary word, we call this bit the sign bit . If the sign bit is 0, the word represents positive number, while negative numbers have 1as the sign bit.

In 2's compliment representation, subtraction of two integers can be accomplished by usual binary summation bycomputing x y as x y . We investigate the operations on the 2's compliment numbers later . However, when you add two 2's complement numbers, you must keep in mind that the 1 inMSB is actually -1.

(2's complement): What are the decimal numbers corresponding to the 2's complement 8-bit binarynumbers; 01001101 , 11100100 , 01111001 , and 10001011 ?

Intentionally left blank.

Sometimes, you need to convert an 8-bit 2's complement number to a 16-bit number. What is the 16-bit 2's complementnumber representing the same value as the 8-bit numbers 01001011 and 10010111 ? The answer is 0000000001001000 and 1111111110010111 . For nonnegative numbers (sign bit = 0), you simply addenough 0's to extend the number of bits. For negative numbers, you add enough 1's. This operation is called sign extension . The same rule holds for extending a 16-bit 2's complement number to a 32-bit number.

For the arithmetic assembly instructions, C62x CPU has different versions depending on how it handles the signs.For example, the load instructions LDH and LDB load halfword and byte value to a 32-bit register with sign extension. That is, the loadedvalues are converted to 32-bit 2's complement number and loaded into a register. The instructions LDHU and LDBU do not perform sign extension. They simply fill zeros for theupper 16- and 24-bits, respectively.

For the shift right instructions SHR and SHRU , the same rule applies. The ADDU instruction simply treats the operands as unsigned values.

Fractional representation

Although using 2's compliment integers we can implement both addition and subtraction by usual binary addition (withspecial care for the sign bit), the integers are not convenient to handle to implement DSP algorithms. Forexample, If we multiply two 8-bit words together, we need 16 bits to store the result. The number of required wordlength increases without bound as we multiply numbers together more. Although not impossible, it is complicatedto handle this increase in word-length using integer arithmetic. The problem can be easily handled by usingnumbers between -1 and 1 , instead of integers, because the product of two numbers in -1 1 are always in the same range.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
where are the solutions?
where are the solutions?

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Source:  OpenStax, Finite impulse response. OpenStax CNX. Feb 16, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10226/1.1
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