# Filtering: introduction

 Page 1 / 2
This module is part of the collection, A First Course in Electrical and Computer Engineering . The LaTeX source files for this collection were created using an optical character recognition technology, and because of this process there may be more errors than usual. Please contact us if you discover any errors.

#### Notes to teachers and students:

Filtering is one of the most important things that electrical and computer engineers do. In this chapter we extend everyday understanding of filters to numerical filters. We then study weighted moving averages and exponential averages. We define the important test signals for electrical and computer engineering and show how filters respond to them. The idea that filters are characterized by their response to simple test signals is fundamental. In the numerical experiment , students explore the frequency response of a simple filter, a concept that forms the basis of circuit theory, electronics, optics and lasers, solid-state devices, communications, and control.

#### Introduction

A filter is any device that passes material, light, sound, current, velocity, or information according to some rule of selectivity. Material (or mechanical) filters are commonplace in your everyday life:

1. coffee filters pass flavored water while filtering out coffee grounds;
2. Goretex fibers pass small, warm perspiration droplets while filtering out large, cool droplets of rain or snow;
3. fiberglass strands in a furnace filter pass warm air while filtering out particles of dirt and dust;
4. a centrifuge retains material of low density while spinning out (or filtering out) material of high density; and
5. an electrostatic precipitator filters out dust and other effluents by attaching charge to them and using an electric field to move the charged particles to a high potential drain.

The first three of these examples selectively pass material according to size; the last two selectively pass material according to its mass density.

Typical filters for light are

1. UV filters on camera lenses and eyeglasses that pass light in the range of visible wavelengths while blocking light in the invisible (but damaging) ultraviolet range;
2. polaroid lenses that pass light that is randomly polarized while blocking out glare that is linearly polarized;
3. green fabrics that reflect green light and absorb other colors;
4. red taillights that pass light in the long wavelength red range and reflect light in the short wavelength violet range (look at the inside of your taillights to see violet); and
5. glacial ice that absorbs all but the blue wavelengths so that it appears blue.

Satellite Television. Among current filters, the tuner in a super-heterodyne receiver is, perhaps, the first example that comes to mind. But satellite TV filters are another fascinating example. A typical C-band satellite has twelve transponders (or repeaters), each of which transmits microwave radiation in a personalized 36 MHz band. (The abbreviation MHz stands for megahertz, or ${10}^{6}$ Hz, or ${10}^{6}$ cycles per second. Other common abbreviations are Hz for 1 Hz, kHz for ${10}^{3}$ Hz, and GHz for ${10}^{9}$ Hz.) Each transponder actually transmits two channels of information, one vertically polarized and one horizontally polarized. There is an 8 MHz guard band between each band, and the vertical and horizontal channels are offset by 20 MHz. The transmission scheme for the 24 channels is illustrated in Figure 1 . The entire transmission band extends over 540 MHz, from $3.7×{10}^{9}$ Hz to $4.24×{10}^{9}$ Hz. The satellite receiver has two different microwave detectors, one for vertical and one for horizontal polarization, and a microwave tuner to tune into the microwave band of interest.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!