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Notes to teachers and students:

Filtering is one of the most important things that electrical and computer engineers do. In this chapter we extend everyday understanding of filters to numerical filters. We then study weighted moving averages and exponential averages. We define the important test signals for electrical and computer engineering and show how filters respond to them. The idea that filters are characterized by their response to simple test signals is fundamental. In the numerical experiment , students explore the frequency response of a simple filter, a concept that forms the basis of circuit theory, electronics, optics and lasers, solid-state devices, communications, and control.


A filter is any device that passes material, light, sound, current, velocity, or information according to some rule of selectivity. Material (or mechanical) filters are commonplace in your everyday life:

  1. coffee filters pass flavored water while filtering out coffee grounds;
  2. Goretex fibers pass small, warm perspiration droplets while filtering out large, cool droplets of rain or snow;
  3. fiberglass strands in a furnace filter pass warm air while filtering out particles of dirt and dust;
  4. a centrifuge retains material of low density while spinning out (or filtering out) material of high density; and
  5. an electrostatic precipitator filters out dust and other effluents by attaching charge to them and using an electric field to move the charged particles to a high potential drain.

The first three of these examples selectively pass material according to size; the last two selectively pass material according to its mass density.

Typical filters for light are

  1. UV filters on camera lenses and eyeglasses that pass light in the range of visible wavelengths while blocking light in the invisible (but damaging) ultraviolet range;
  2. polaroid lenses that pass light that is randomly polarized while blocking out glare that is linearly polarized;
  3. green fabrics that reflect green light and absorb other colors;
  4. red taillights that pass light in the long wavelength red range and reflect light in the short wavelength violet range (look at the inside of your taillights to see violet); and
  5. glacial ice that absorbs all but the blue wavelengths so that it appears blue.

Satellite Television. Among current filters, the tuner in a super-heterodyne receiver is, perhaps, the first example that comes to mind. But satellite TV filters are another fascinating example. A typical C-band satellite has twelve transponders (or repeaters), each of which transmits microwave radiation in a personalized 36 MHz band. (The abbreviation MHz stands for megahertz, or 10 6 Hz, or 10 6 cycles per second. Other common abbreviations are Hz for 1 Hz, kHz for 10 3 Hz, and GHz for 10 9 Hz.) Each transponder actually transmits two channels of information, one vertically polarized and one horizontally polarized. There is an 8 MHz guard band between each band, and the vertical and horizontal channels are offset by 20 MHz. The transmission scheme for the 24 channels is illustrated in Figure 1 . The entire transmission band extends over 540 MHz, from 3 . 7 × 10 9 Hz to 4 . 24 × 10 9 Hz. The satellite receiver has two different microwave detectors, one for vertical and one for horizontal polarization, and a microwave tuner to tune into the microwave band of interest.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A first course in electrical and computer engineering. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10685/1.2
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