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V = PE q . size 12{V= { {"PE"} over {q} } "." } {}

Electric potential

This is the electric potential energy per unit charge.

V = PE q size 12{V= { {"PE"} over {q} } } {}

Since PE is proportional to q size 12{q} {} , the dependence on q size 12{q} {} cancels. Thus V size 12{V} {} does not depend on q size 12{q} {} . The change in potential energy ΔPE size 12{?"PE"} {} is crucial, and so we are concerned with the difference in potential or potential difference Δ V size 12{?V} {} between two points, where

Δ V = V B V A = Δ PE q . size 12{ΔV=V rSub { size 8{B} } - V rSub { size 8{A} } = { {Δ"PE"} over {q} } "." } {}

The potential difference between points A and B, V B V A size 12{V rSub { size 8{B} } -V rSub { size 8{A} } } {} , is thus defined to be the change in potential energy of a charge q size 12{q} {} moved from A to B, divided by the charge. Units of potential difference are joules per coulomb, given the name volt (V) after Alessandro Volta.

1 V = 1 J C size 12{1" V=1 " { {J} over {C} } } {}

Potential difference

The potential difference between points A and B, V B - V A size 12{V rSub { size 8{B} } -V rSub { size 8{A} } } {} , is defined to be the change in potential energy of a charge q moved from A to B, divided by the charge. Units of potential difference are joules per coulomb, given the name volt (V) after Alessandro Volta.

1 V = 1 J C

The familiar term voltage is the common name for potential difference. Keep in mind that whenever a voltage is quoted, it is understood to be the potential difference between two points. For example, every battery has two terminals, and its voltage is the potential difference between them. More fundamentally, the point you choose to be zero volts is arbitrary. This is analogous to the fact that gravitational potential energy has an arbitrary zero, such as sea level or perhaps a lecture hall floor.

In summary, the relationship between potential difference (or voltage) and electrical potential energy is given by

Δ V = ΔPE q and ΔPE = q Δ V . size 12{?V= { {?"PE"} over {q} } " and "D"PE="q?V "." } {}

Potential difference and electrical potential energy

The relationship between potential difference (or voltage) and electrical potential energy is given by

Δ V = ΔPE q and ΔPE = q Δ V . size 12{?V= { {?"PE"} over {q} } " and "D"PE="q?V "." } {}

The second equation is equivalent to the first.

Voltage is not the same as energy. Voltage is the energy per unit charge. Thus a motorcycle battery and a car battery can both have the same voltage (more precisely, the same potential difference between battery terminals), yet one stores much more energy than the other since ΔPE = q Δ V . The car battery can move more charge than the motorcycle battery, although both are 12 V batteries.

Calculating energy

Suppose you have a 12.0 V motorcycle battery that can move 5000 C of charge, and a 12.0 V car battery that can move 60,000 C of charge. How much energy does each deliver? (Assume that the numerical value of each charge is accurate to three significant figures.)

Strategy

To say we have a 12.0 V battery means that its terminals have a 12.0 V potential difference. When such a battery moves charge, it puts the charge through a potential difference of 12.0 V, and the charge is given a change in potential energy equal to ΔPE = q Δ V .

So to find the energy output, we multiply the charge moved by the potential difference.

Solution

For the motorcycle battery, q = 5000 C and Δ V = 12.0 V . The total energy delivered by the motorcycle battery is

ΔPE cycle = 5000 C 12.0 V = 5000 C 12.0 J/C = 6.00 × 10 4 J.

Similarly, for the car battery, q = 60 , 000 C size 12{q="60","000"" C"} {} and

ΔPE car = 60,000 C 12.0 V = 7.20 × 10 5 J.

Discussion

While voltage and energy are related, they are not the same thing. The voltages of the batteries are identical, but the energy supplied by each is quite different. Note also that as a battery is discharged, some of its energy is used internally and its terminal voltage drops, such as when headlights dim because of a low car battery. The energy supplied by the battery is still calculated as in this example, but not all of the energy is available for external use.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas). OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11649/1.2
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