# Eel3111 force sensor paper july 2010  (Page 2/3)

 Page 2 / 3

Note the term pressure which means force per unit area. While advertised as a force sensor, in reality, the device actually is pressure sensitive. Testing has shown that the same 100 gram weight will cause a greater output voltage swing if the force is concentrated on a smaller area. Based on the above description it should be clear why. Localized high pressure on a given area of the sensor creates a very low resistance bridge between the enmeshed conductors at that point. Spreading the force over a larger area will decrease the resistance of the sensor as a whole but will not result in the very low resistance circuit created under high pressure.

## Operation

The 10 kilo-ohm resistor allows the circuit to act as a voltage divider. It also restricts the buildup of excessive current flow when pressure is exerted on the sensor. The equation for V out is shown below:

V out =

R FSR represents the sensor’s resistance under a given load. In this configuration the output voltage is very small when no load is applied. The voltage increases in a nonlinear fashion with respect to the applied load. This is due to the manner in which the resistance of the FSR changes with the applied load (See figure 4). Note that only as a substantial force is applied does the rate of change of resistance with respect to applied load move towards a constant value. Switching the positions of the two resistors would cause voltage to be at a maximum under no-load conditions.

## Ugb

As discussed above, V out is the voltage pickoff from the FSR network. This voltage is sent next to an op-amp that functions as a UGB. This is accomplished by connecting the output to the inverting input terminal [4]. No feedback resistor is used just a copper wire. This connection drives the gain of the amp towards unity and no amplification of the signal occurs. As discussed in class the purpose of this is to isolate the input to the microprocessor from the FSR circuit (fig. 5).

The op amp we used has the part number TLV2765. It was soldered directly on to the board. The rail voltages are 3.3 volts to the positive and ground (reference voltage) which is applied to the negative. This op amp is a rail-to rail op amp meaning that high fidelity can be achieved even when the input signal (V out ) is very close to one of the rail voltages [3]. This function is essential because under no-load conditions the input signal to the op-amp is very close to the reference voltage which acts as the negative rail voltage. In fact, during construction of the device we had to hook up multiple op amps before we could find one that was faithful under no load conditions. We could have dedicated a separate -3.3 volt supply to use as the negative rail voltage but selection of this op amp made that unnecessary. Full credit should be given to Mike Toth for solving this design problem.

## Msp430f449 and lcd

Up until this point in the circuit the signal representing the force applied was analog. The real magic takes place inside the microprocessor where the signal is converted in to a digital signal which is suitable for display on the LCD. Again we want to give credit to Mike Toth in the lab for doing most of the programming that was required. The MSP430F449 is a microcontroller unit complete with timers, analog to digital converters, and a LCD driver. It also contains memory which can be used to program the device to perform specific functions. The primary use for such a device is to capture analog signals, convert them to digital, and output the digital signal to an LCD or to some other device [2]. They can be purchased or procured as student samples at the Texas Instrument website. Figure six is a flow chart provided by Mike Toth that illustrates the flow of the program we used in this device. Notice the infinite loop (wait forever) and the one second interrupt. The infinite loop tells the program to execute a command with no predefined condition (that is not always true). Technically speaking this is like telling a program to run without ever giving it instructions on when to stop. This means that the only way to halt operation is to power down the device using the sliding switch on the front of the package. In C, the programming language used by engineers, there are different ways to exit an infinite loop. You can use the break command to end the cycle when a specific condition is encountered. Another method is to include in the program what is called an interrupt.

are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
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