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Accordingly, atomic coordinates are usually expressed in terms of fractional coordinates, (x, y, z). This coordinate system is coincident with the cell axes ( a , b , c ) and relates to the position of the atom in terms of the fraction along each axis. Consider the atom in the cubic cell discussion above. The atom was 1.5 Å in the a direction away from the origin. As the a axis is 3.52 Å long, the atom is ( 1.5 / 3.52 ) or 0.43 of the axis away from the origin. Similarly, it is ( 2.1 / 3.52 ) or 0.60 of the b axis and ( 2.4 / 3.5 ) or 0.68 of the c axis. The fractional coordinates of this atom are, therefore, (0.43, 0.60, 0.68). The coordinates of the equivalent atom in the next cell over in the a direction, however, are easily calculated as this atom is simply 1 unit cell away in a . Thus, all one has to do is add 1 to the x coordinate: (1.43, 0.60, 0.68). Such transformations can be performed regardless of the shape of the unit cell. Fractional coordinates, therefore, are used to retain and manipulate crystal information.

Crystal directions

The designation of the individual vectors within any given crystal lattice is accomplished by the use of whole number multipliers of the lattice parameter of the point at which the vector exits the unit cell. The vector is indicated by the notation [ hkl ], where h , k , and l are reciprocals of the point at which the vector exits the unit cell. The origination of all vectors is assumed defined as [000]. For example, the direction along the a -axis according to this scheme would be [100] because this has a component only in the a -direction and no component along either the b or c axial direction. A vector diagonally along the face defined by the a and b axis would be [110], while going from one corner of the unit cell to the opposite corner would be in the [111]direction. [link] shows some examples of the various directions in the unit cell. The crystal direction notation is made up of the lowest combination of integers and represents unit distances rather than actual distances. A [222] direction is identical to a [111], so [111] is used. Fractions are not used. For example, a vector that intercepts the center of the top face of the unit cell has the coordinates x = 1/2, y = 1/2, z = 1. All have to be inversed to convert to the lowest combination of integers (whole numbers); i.e., [221]in [link] . Finally, all parallel vectors have the same crystal direction, e.g., the four vertical edges of the cell shown in [link] all have the crystal direction [ hkl ] = [001].

Some common directions in a cubic unit cell.

Crystal directions may be grouped in families. To avoid confusion there exists a convention in the choice of brackets surrounding the three numbers to differentiate a crystal direction from a family of direction. For a direction, square brackets [ hkl ] are used to indicate an individual direction. Angle brackets< hkl >indicate a family of directions. A family of directions includes any directions that are equivalent in length and types of atoms encountered. For example, in a cubic lattice, the [100], [010], and [001] directions all belong to the<100>family of planes because they are equivalent. If the cubic lattice were rotated 90°, the a , b , and c directions would remain indistinguishable, and there would be no way of telling on which crystallographic positions the atoms are situated, so the family of directions is the same. In a hexagonal crystal, however, this is not the case, so the [100] and [010]would both be<100>directions, but the [001] direction would be distinct. Finally, negative directions are identified with a bar over the negative number instead of a minus sign.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Electromagnetism. OpenStax CNX. Jan 13, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11173/1.1
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