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Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) learned the works of Peurbach and Regiomontanus in the undergraduate curriculum at theuniversity of Cracow and then spent a decade studying in Italy. Upon his return to Poland, he spent the rest of his lifeas a physician, lawyer, and church administrator. During his spare time he continued his research in astronomy. The resultwas De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium ("On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs"), which was published inNuremberg in 1543, the year of his death. The book was dedicated to Pope Paul III and initially caused litle controversy. Ananonymous preface (added by Andreas Osiander, the Protestant reformer of Nuremberg) stated that the theory put forward inthis book was only a mathematical hypothesis: the geometrical constructions used by astronomers had traditionally had onlyhypothetical status; cosmological interpretations were reserved for the philosophers. Indeed, except for the first elevenchapters of Book I, De Revolutionibus was a technical mathematical work in the tradition of the Almagest .

Diagram of the Copernican system, from De Revolutions
But in the first book, Copernicus stated that the Sun was the center of the universe and that the Earth had a triple motion
A daily rotation about its center, an annual motion around the Sun, and a conical motion of its axis of rotation. This lastmotion was made necessary because Copernicus conceptualized the Earth's annual motion as the result of the Earth beingembedded in a spherical shell centered on the Sun. Its axis of rotation therefore did not remain parallel to itself withrespect to the fixed stars. To keep the axis parallel to itself, Copernicus gave the axis a conical motion with aperiod just about equal to the year. The very small difference from the annual period accounted for the precesion of theequinoxes, an effect caused by the fact that the Earth's axis (in Newtonian terms) precesses like a top, with a period ofabout 26,000 years. (Copernicus's ideas about this precession were more cumbersome and based on faulty data.)
around this center. His theory gave a simple and elegant explanation ofthe retrograde motions of the planets (the annual motion of the Earth necessarily projected onto the motions ofthe planets in geocentric astronomy) and settled the order of the planets (which had been a convention in Ptolemy's work)definitively. He argued that his system was more elegant than the traditional geocentric system. Copernicus still retained thepriviledged status of circular motion and therefore had to construct his planetary orbits from circles upon and withincircles, just as his predecessors had done. His tables were perhaps only marginally better than existing ones.

The reception of De Revolutionibus was mixed. The heliocentric hypothesis was rejected out of hand by virtuallyall, but the book was the most sophisticated astronomical treatise since the Almagest , and for this it was widely admired. Its mathematical constructions were easilytransferred into geocentric ones, and many astronomers used them. In 1551 Erasmus Reinhold, no believer in the mobility ofthe Earth, published a new set of tables, the Prutenic Tables , based on Copernicus's parameters. These tables came to be preferred for their accuracy. Further, De revolutionibus became the central work in a network of astronomers, who dissected it in great detail. Not until ageneration after its appearance, however, can we begin point to a community of practicing astronomers who accepted heliocentriccosmology. Perhaps the most remarkable early follower of Copernicus was Thomas Digges (c. 1545-c.1595), who in A Perfit Description of the Coelestiall Orbes (1576) translated a large part of Book I of De Revolutionibus into English and illustrated it with a diagram in which the Copernican arrangement of the planets isimbedded in an infinite universe of stars.

Questions & Answers

what are two classical macroeconomics and what're their theories say about their equations?
what is the formula for calculating elasticity
aza Reply
what is elasticity of demand?
Rita Reply
Causes of economic growth
pierre Reply
What is elasticity of demand
What are the causes of economic growth
economic growth, establishment of industry, encourage of investor's, farm productivities, creation of institutions, construction of good road etc
elasticity of demand can be said to be the responsiveness of demand to a change in prices
impact of collusion in the economy referring to inefficiencies illustrated by means of graph
nondumiso Reply
The Factor price will determine the choice of techniques to produce.Expantiate
what is elasticity of demand?
Etta Reply
state and explain two types of demand
Institution involved in money market
Gande Reply
what is Economics
Kwame Reply
Economic is the study of scarcity
Economics is the study of a lot of things. It is split up into two areas of study, Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Microeconomics is the study of an individual's choices in the economy and Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole.
Economics is a science that studies human scarcity
What is Equilibrium price?
Equilibrium is the market clearing price. The point at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. The point at which the supply and demand curves intersect.
Equilibrium price*
Refers to the study of how producers use limited resources to satisfy human unlimited wants
why is economics important
Derrick Reply
What will you do as a consumer if you are not at equilibrium?
chukwu Reply
am new I will like to know about the graph relationship
Gloria Reply
comment on WTO principle on trading system. trade without discrimination
Omben Reply
optimize z=f(x,y)=6x²-9x-3xy-7y+5y²
Alex Reply
What is an indifference curve?
layla Reply
different levels of utilities of a person in a given set of bundles of goods
identify and quantify five social costs and social benefits of building a school
Mokgobo Reply
identify and quantity five social costs and social benefits of building a hospital
short run vs long run
state the law of diminishing return?
The Law of Diminishing (Marginal) Returns simply states that at some point in time a business/operation/etc.'s increased productivity will begin to decline.
For example, if a small pizza shop currently has 3 workers in the kitchen at any given time,and hiring 1 more worker will increase productivity, at some number of workers hired will the business see a decrease in productivity because the capital resources that the pizza shop has is not infinite.
Five social benefits of building a hospital, in my opinion and depending on where it's built, would be 1) Increased care for neighboring residents, 2) Potential jobs for individuals, 3) May decrease the travel time residents need to endure in order to reach the nearest hospital
4) May create work-study programs for individuals who aspire to be future Doctors, Nurses, Physicians, etc. 5) Assuming there are local pharmaceutical businesses nearby, the hospital may decide to purchase supplies local, increasing the business' sales. Thus, generating more income.
5 costs of building a hospital would be 1) Increased noise and waste pollution from service vehicles and hospital visitors, 2) May require large amounts of space, possibly jeopardizing nearby animal habitats, 3) May see an increase in traffic and possibly car accidents from frantic individuals
racing to see their injured friends, family members, etc. 4) Constructing a hospital and hiring staff is very expensive 5) To use funds, private or public, to finance the construction of a hospital cannot be used to fund any other projects. (The concept of opportunity costs.)
what is meant by inteference with the price mechanism operation?
We use a Supply and Demand graph to illustrate at what price level will the market for a certain good or service be at equilibrium. If the price for a good or service is set too high, consumers will be less inclined to buy that product Thus, creating a surplus.
This surplus will eventually drive the price back down to it's equilibrium point. Similarly, if a price for a good or service is set too low, individuals would be more inclined to buy more of a certain product, creating a shortage. This shortage will cause sellers to drive the price back up to the
equilibrium point.
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
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Source:  OpenStax, Galileo project. OpenStax CNX. Jul 07, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10234/1.1
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