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Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) learned the works of Peurbach and Regiomontanus in the undergraduate curriculum at theuniversity of Cracow and then spent a decade studying in Italy. Upon his return to Poland, he spent the rest of his lifeas a physician, lawyer, and church administrator. During his spare time he continued his research in astronomy. The resultwas De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium ("On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs"), which was published inNuremberg in 1543, the year of his death. The book was dedicated to Pope Paul III and initially caused litle controversy. Ananonymous preface (added by Andreas Osiander, the Protestant reformer of Nuremberg) stated that the theory put forward inthis book was only a mathematical hypothesis: the geometrical constructions used by astronomers had traditionally had onlyhypothetical status; cosmological interpretations were reserved for the philosophers. Indeed, except for the first elevenchapters of Book I, De Revolutionibus was a technical mathematical work in the tradition of the Almagest .

Diagram of the Copernican system, from De Revolutions
But in the first book, Copernicus stated that the Sun was the center of the universe and that the Earth had a triple motion
A daily rotation about its center, an annual motion around the Sun, and a conical motion of its axis of rotation. This lastmotion was made necessary because Copernicus conceptualized the Earth's annual motion as the result of the Earth beingembedded in a spherical shell centered on the Sun. Its axis of rotation therefore did not remain parallel to itself withrespect to the fixed stars. To keep the axis parallel to itself, Copernicus gave the axis a conical motion with aperiod just about equal to the year. The very small difference from the annual period accounted for the precesion of theequinoxes, an effect caused by the fact that the Earth's axis (in Newtonian terms) precesses like a top, with a period ofabout 26,000 years. (Copernicus's ideas about this precession were more cumbersome and based on faulty data.)
around this center. His theory gave a simple and elegant explanation ofthe retrograde motions of the planets (the annual motion of the Earth necessarily projected onto the motions ofthe planets in geocentric astronomy) and settled the order of the planets (which had been a convention in Ptolemy's work)definitively. He argued that his system was more elegant than the traditional geocentric system. Copernicus still retained thepriviledged status of circular motion and therefore had to construct his planetary orbits from circles upon and withincircles, just as his predecessors had done. His tables were perhaps only marginally better than existing ones.

The reception of De Revolutionibus was mixed. The heliocentric hypothesis was rejected out of hand by virtuallyall, but the book was the most sophisticated astronomical treatise since the Almagest , and for this it was widely admired. Its mathematical constructions were easilytransferred into geocentric ones, and many astronomers used them. In 1551 Erasmus Reinhold, no believer in the mobility ofthe Earth, published a new set of tables, the Prutenic Tables , based on Copernicus's parameters. These tables came to be preferred for their accuracy. Further, De revolutionibus became the central work in a network of astronomers, who dissected it in great detail. Not until ageneration after its appearance, however, can we begin point to a community of practicing astronomers who accepted heliocentriccosmology. Perhaps the most remarkable early follower of Copernicus was Thomas Digges (c. 1545-c.1595), who in A Perfit Description of the Coelestiall Orbes (1576) translated a large part of Book I of De Revolutionibus into English and illustrated it with a diagram in which the Copernican arrangement of the planets isimbedded in an infinite universe of stars.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Galileo project. OpenStax CNX. Jul 07, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10234/1.1
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