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x ( t ) = a ( 0 ) 2 + k = 1 a ( k ) cos ( 2 π T k t ) + b ( k ) sin ( 2 π T k t ) .

where x k ( t ) = c o s ( 2 π k t / T ) and y k ( t ) = s i n ( 2 π k t / T ) are the basis functions for the expansion. The energy or power in an electrical,mechanical, etc. system is a function of the square of voltage, current, velocity, pressure, etc. For this reason, the natural setting for arepresentation of signals is the Hilbert space of L 2 [ 0 , T ] . This modern formulation of the problem is developed in [link] , [link] . The sinusoidal basis functions in the trigonometric expansion form a completeorthogonal set in L 2 [ 0 , T ] . The orthogonality is easily seen from inner products

( cos ( 2 π T k t ) , cos ( 2 π T t ) ) = 0 T ( cos ( 2 π T k t ) cos ( 2 π T t ) ) d t = δ ( k - )

and

( cos ( 2 π T k t ) , sin ( 2 π T t ) ) = 0 T ( cos ( 2 π T k t ) sin ( 2 π T t ) ) d t = 0

where δ ( t ) is the Kronecker delta function with δ ( 0 ) = 1 and δ ( k 0 ) = 0 . Because of this, the k th coefficients in the series can be foundby taking the inner product of x ( t ) with the k th basis functions. This gives for the coefficients

a ( k ) = 2 T 0 T x ( t ) cos ( 2 π T k t ) d t

and

b ( k ) = 2 T 0 T x ( t ) sin ( 2 π T k t ) d t

where T is the time interval of interest or the period of a periodic signal. Because of the orthogonality of the basis functions, afinite Fourier series formed by truncating the infinite series is an optimal least squared error approximation to x ( t ) . If the finite series is defined by

x ^ ( t ) = a ( 0 ) 2 + k = 1 N a ( k ) cos ( 2 π T k t ) + b ( k ) sin ( 2 π T k t ) ,

the squared error is

ε = 1 T 0 T | x ( t ) - x ^ ( t ) | 2 d t

which is minimized over all a ( k ) and b ( k ) by [link] and [link] . This is an extraordinarily important property.

It follows that if x ( t ) L 2 [ 0 , T ] , then the series converges to x ( t ) in the sense that ε 0 as N [link] , [link] . The question of point-wise convergence is more difficult. A sufficient condition that is adequate for mostapplication states: If f ( x ) is bounded, is piece-wise continuous, and has no more than a finite number of maxima over an interval, the Fourierseries converges point-wise to f ( x ) at all points of continuity and to the arithmetic mean at points of discontinuities. If f ( x ) is continuous, the series converges uniformly at all points [link] , [link] , [link] .

A useful condition [link] , [link] states that if x ( t ) and its derivatives through the q th derivative are defined and have bounded variation, the Fourier coefficients a ( k ) and b ( k ) asymptotically drop off at least as fast as 1 k q + 1 as k . This ties global rates of convergence of the coefficients to local smoothness conditions of the function.

The form of the Fourier series using both sines and cosines makes determination of the peak value or of the location of a particularfrequency term difficult. A different form that explicitly gives the peak value of the sinusoid of that frequency and the location or phase shift ofthat sinusoid is given by

x ( t ) = d ( 0 ) 2 + k = 1 d ( k ) cos ( 2 π T k t + θ ( k ) )

and, using Euler's relation and the usual electrical engineering notation of j = - 1 ,

e j x = cos ( x ) + j sin ( x ) ,

the complex exponential form is obtained as

x ( t ) = k = - c ( k ) e j 2 π T k t

where

c ( k ) = a ( k ) + j b ( k ) .

The coefficient equation is

c ( k ) = 1 T 0 T x ( t ) e - j 2 π T k t d t

The coefficients in these three forms are related by

| d | 2 = | c | 2 = a 2 + b 2

and

θ = a r g { c } = tan - 1 ( b a )

It is easier to evaluate a signal in terms of c ( k ) or d ( k ) and θ ( k ) than in terms of a ( k ) and b ( k ) . The first two are polar representation of a complex value and the last is rectangular. Theexponential form is easier to work with mathematically.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Digital signal processing and digital filter design (draft). OpenStax CNX. Nov 17, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10598/1.6
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