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An introduction to our ELEC 301 project.


Thanks to the growth of the World Wide Web over the past decade or so, vast amounts of information are available to anyone in possession of a personal computer with a modem and an Internet connection. Tasks such as finding a favorite poem have been made easy by search engines like Google. One can simply type in a few lines from the poem, and then it’s just a matter of sorting through a few top matches before one has the entire poem on the screen.

While searching textual media is fairly trivial, looking for an image that you have seen before can be a huge problem. If you remember seeing an interesting painting, say Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, after walking through a museum, and you’d like to find information on it online, unless you have a word or phrase associated with the painting, such as da Vinci or Mona Lisa , it would be difficult to find any information about the particular work of art. You might be able to find the painting online in some subject-specific database such as an online art gallery; however, such databases for most subjects are fairly uncommon.

When in search of this work of art, while one may not have textual information related to the painting, one usually does have some information about the image in question; that is, the person has a coarse-scale idea of what the Mona Lisa, for instance, looks like. This information should be fairly useful for finding an actual image of the Mona Lisa, but given current techniques, searches for visual data break down as effective strategies when the database size increases to even a small fraction of the number of images on the World Wide Web.

Our goal

We would like to come up with some sort of a scheme that allows a user to search through a large database of images. The system would likely work by having the user enter a query image, a low-detail, coarse-scale version of the image he or she would like to find, and then returning small thumbnails of several matching images for the user to skim over. Ideally, we would like such a system to satisfy several properties.

Firstly, our algorithm should be reasonably fast and efficient. It’s fairly obvious that this property is desirable for any algorithm, but would be especially so in our case, where it is likely that such a system is used on a search engine such as Google where there would potentially be thousands, if not millions, of query images entered every minute.

Our algorithm should also be well suited to matching coarse-scale versions of images to high detail versions of the same image. Users should be able to sketch an image in a simple drawing application where a lot of detail is not easy to add to the query image. They should also be able to enter images that have been digitized by the use of a scanner, which we assume introduces blurriness and additional noise such as scratches, dust, etc, to the extent that they would find it highly useful to search for a higher-resolution version of the image online.

Ideally, we would also like our algorithm to be able to handle affine transformations, such as translation, rotation, and scaling. It is unreasonable to expect a user to be able to draw parts of an image in exactly the same region that they appear in the original image. While these three transformations are all important components of an image querying system, we made the decision to focus on translation because it seems like the most likely type of error that a user would make.

Past work

We structure our approach after that of Jacobs, Finkelstein, and Salesin, who, while at the University of Washington, published a paper on Fast Multiresolution Image Querying , which used the wavelet basis to decompose images to provide a low-resolution version of an image which is highly effective for image matching. The primary drawback is that the approach is ineffective for detecting shifts of an image since the separable discrete wavelet basis is not shift-invariant. Therefore, we propose the use of the complex discrete wavelet basis which possesses a high degree of shift-invariance in its magnitude. When coupled appropriately with the two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform, the two-dimensional Complex Discrete Wavelet Transform allows us to match shifted versions of an image with a significantly higher degree of certainty than does the approach of Jacobs, et al.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ece 301 projects fall 2003. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10223/1.5
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