Single- and Two-Phase
Motors
This lecture note is based on the textbook # 1. Electric Machinery - A.E. Fitzgerald, Charles Kingsley, Jr., Stephen D. Umans- 6th edition- Mc Graw Hill series in Electrical Engineering. Power and Energy
- This chapter discusses single-phase motors. While focusing on induction motors, synchronous-reluctance, hysteresis, and shaded-pole induction motors are also discussed.
- Most induction motors of fractional-kilowatt (fractional horsepower) rating are single-phase motors. In residential and commercial applications, they are found in a wide range of equipment including refrigerators, air conditioners and heat pumps, fans, pumps, washers, and dryers.
- Most single-phase induction motors are actually two-phase motors with unsymmetrical windings; the two windings are typically quite different, with different numbers of turns and/or winding distributions.
- 9.1 SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS:
QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION
- Structurally, the most common types of single-phase induction motors resemble polyphase squirrel-cage motors except for the arrangement of the stator windings. An induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor and a single-phase stator winding is represented schematically in Fig. 9.1.
- Instead of being a concentrated coil, the actual stator winding is distributed in slots to produce an approximately sinusoidal space distribution of mmf. A single-phase winding produces equal forward- and backward-rotating mmf waves. By symmetry, it is clear that such a motor inherently will produce no starting torque since at standstill, it will produce equal torque in both directions.
- If it is started by auxiliary
Figure 9.1 Schematic view of a single-phase induction motor.
means, the result will be a net torque in the direction in which it is started, and hence the motor will continue to run.
- We will discuss the basic properties of the schematic motor of Fig. 9.1. If the stator current is a cosinusoidal function of time, the resultant air-gap mmf is given by
${F}_{\text{agl}}={F}_{\text{max}}\text{cos}({\theta}_{\text{ae}})\text{cos}{\omega}_{e}t$ (9.1)
which, can be written as the sum of positive- and negative traveling mmf waves of equal magnitude. The positive-traveling wave is given by
${F}_{\text{agl}}^{+}=\frac{1}{2}{F}_{\text{max}}\text{cos}({\theta}_{\text{ae}}-{\omega}_{e}t)$ (9.2)
and the negative-traveling wave is given by
${F}_{\text{agl}}^{-}=\frac{1}{2}{F}_{\text{max}}\text{cos}({\theta}_{\text{ae}}+{\omega}_{e}t)$ (9.3)
- Each of these component mmf waves produces induction-motor action, but the corresponding torques are in opposite directions. With the rotor at rest, the forward and backward air-gap flux waves created by the combined mmf's of the stator and rotor currents are equal, the component torques are equal, and no starting torque is produced. If the forward and backward air-gap flux waves were to remain equal when the rotor revolves, each of the component fields would produce a torque-speed characteristic similar to that of a polyphase motor with negligible stator leakage impedance, as illustrated by the dashed curves f and b in Fig. 9.2a. The resultant torque-speed characteristic, which is the algebraic sum of the two component curves, shows that if the motor were started by auxiliary means, it would produce torque in whatever direction it was started.
- The assumption that the air-gap flux waves remain equal when the rotor is in motion is a rather drastic simplification of the actual state of affairs. First, the effects of stator leakage impedance are ignored. Second, the effects of induced rotor currents are not properly accounted for.