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.d unit
Instruction Description
ADD(U) signed or unsigned integer addition without saturation
ADDAB (B/H/W) integer addition using addressing mode
LDB (B/H/W) load from memory with a 15-bit constant offset
MV move from register to register
STB (B/H/W) store to memory with a register offset or 5-bit unsigned constant offset
SUB(U) signed or unsigned integer subtraction without saturation
SUBAB (B/H/W) integer subtraction using addressing mode
ZERO zero a register (pseudo-operation)
.m unit
Instruction Description
MPY (U/US/SU) signed or unsigned integer multiply 16lsb*16lsb
MPYH (U/US/SU) signed or unsigned integer multiply 16msb*16msb
MPYLH signed or unsigned integer multiply 16lsb*16msb
MPYHL signed or unsigned integer multiply 16msb*16lsb
SMPY (HL/LH/H) integer multiply with left shift and saturation

Useful assembler directives

Other than the CPU instruction set, there are special commandsto the assembler that direct the assembler to do various jobs when assembling the code. There are useful assembler directives you can use to let the assembler know various settings, such as .set, .macro, .endm, .ref, .align, .word, .byte .include .

The .set directive defines a symbolic name. For example, you can have

1 count .set 40

The assembler replaces each occurrence of count with 40 .

The .ref directive is used to declare symbolic names defined in another file. It is similar to the extern declaration in C.

The .space directive reserves a memory space with specified number of bytes. For example, you canhave

1 buffer .space 128

to define a buffer of size 128 bytes. The symbol buffer has the address of the first byte reserved by .space . The .bes directive is similar to .space , but the label has the address of the last byte reserved.

To put a constant value in the memory, you can use .byte , .word , etc. If you have

1 const1 .word 0x1234

the assembler places the word constant 0x1234 at a memory location and const1 has the address of the memory location. .byte etc. works similarly.

Sometimes you need to place your data or code at specific memory address boundaries such as word, halfword, etc. You can use the .align directive to do this. For example, if you have

1 .align 4 2 buffer .space 1283 ...

the first address of the reserved 128 bytes is at the word boundary in memory, that is the 2 LSBs of the address (inbinary) are 0. Similarly, for half-word alignment, you should have .align directive to do this. For example, if you have

1 .align 2 2 buffer .space 1283 ...

the .include directive is used to read the source lines from another file. The instruction

1 .include ``other.asm''

will input the lines in other.asm at this location. This is useful when working with multiple files.Instead of making a project having multiple files, you can simply include these different files in one file.

How do you write comments in your assembly program? Anything that follows ; is considered a comment and ignored by the assembler. For example,

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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