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Be what it may, the certain thing is that a greater presence of Hispanics in politics has supposed a jump, unimaginable a few years ago, of the Spanish language to the political area, whether in the Spanish reply of the New Mexican Governor Richardson to President Bush’s speech to the State of the Union January 21, 2004, or with the bilingual debates in the primaries of national character as it happened on September 2003, or with the electoral publicity the Republican party printed in Vista , the Spanish magazine with the greatest diffusion in the nation. There is no doubt that this leap toward the first plane of a language that has always worked as an opaque rumor has contributed to improving the linguistic self-esteem of Hispanics and to reinforce their feeling of loyalty to the maternal language (Bred, 2004).

On the other hand, in spite of their agricultural occupations, especially in the enclave of the Mexican-Americans of the southwest, Hispanics reside preferably in cities with great vitality, like global cities where there is a large percentage of world-wide commerce, especially that oriented to Latin America. Thus, 6 million Hispanics reside in the metropolitan area of Los Angeles, representing 34% of that metropolitan population; 3 million in the area of New York, representing 15%; 1.5 million in the Miami and Lauderdale area, representing 34%; 1 million in San Francisco Bay, including Silicone Valley, representing 16%; another million in the Chicago area, representing 11%; and another million in Houston, representing 21% of its urban population. In this urban globalized world, the presence of Spanish in the work market is more and more essential as time goes by. Global cities like New York, Los Angeles, and Miami, recognized as the commercial capital of Latin America, cities with a great control of the financial and commercial traffic, obligatorily require the presence of the Spanish language, which makes this language a “plus” of labor opportunities for Spanish-speakers that have managed to maintain their maternal language. This eliminates the old paradox saying Hispanic adults must spend long hours of their life trying to acquire a language they lost as a child because of a rigorous monolingual policy that imposed speaking only English. This added value to the Spanish language in the labor world is confirmed by the results of a survey of Center For Labor Research&Studies in April 2004, directed toward Cubans and Cuban-Americans of South Florida, where 70% of the interviewees and the majority of those born in the U.S. consider that speaking Spanish is helpful to find a job (Bred, 2004, p. 90). One more proof that the Spanish language, besides having a strong identity value, is a strong utilitarian component instrumental in the human and social capital of Hispanics.

There is a phenomenon between Hispanics of the U.S. that, without a doubt, will have a positive impact in the maintenance of Spanish of the second and third generations. I refer to the creation of authentic transnational communities through the flow of remittances, information, and contacts on behalf of the respective diasporas of Latin immigrants. As affirmed by Alexander Portes (2004, p. 10), nowadays, the remittances of the Latin immigrants fully exceed the foreign aid received by the country, competes in size with the extreme total of direct foreign investments, and some exceed the total income obtained from exports. In countries like Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador, the immigrants’ remittances are among the three main sources of currency, becoming thus fundamentally integral to the national economy. But the volume of the remittances is not only enormous, but regular and stable throughout time, which allows international banks to use the future remittances as a collateral guarantee at the time of granting loans to banks of the origin countries. That is how the modest wage-earning work of immigrants hits the world-wide economy through the activation of the five T’s of economic integration: tourism, telecommunications, transport (aerial), transference of remittances, and trade commerce denominated nostalgic. A pursuit of these five axes, as Manuel Orozco (2004) did, would discover the complexity that the impact of these remittances have in the economies of the origin countries.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: considerations for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Jul 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11174/1.28
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