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This course is a short series of lectures on Statistical Bioinformatics. Topics covered are listed in the Table of Contents. The notes were preparedby Ewa Paszek, Lukasz Wita and Marek Kimmel. The development of this course has been supported by NSF 0203396 grant.


A central goal of molecular biology is to understand the regulation of protein synthesis and its reactions to external and internal signals. All the cells in an organism carry the same genomic data, yet their protein makeup can be drastically different both temporally and spatially, due to regulation. Protein synthesis is regulated by many mechanisms at its different stages. These include mechanisms for controlling transcription initiation, RNA splicing, mRNA transport, translation initiation, post-translational modifications, and degradation of mRNA/protein. One of the main junctions at which regulation occurs is mRNA transcription. A major role in this machinery is played by proteins themselves that bind to regulatory regions along the DNA, greatly affecting the transcription of the genes they regulate.In recent years, technical breakthroughs in spotting hybridization probes and advances in genome sequencing efforts lead to development of DNA microarrays, which consist of many species of probes, either oligonucleotides or cDNA, that are immobilized in a predefined organization to a solid phase. By using DNA microarrays, researchers are now able to measure the abundance of thousands of mRNA targets simultaneously ( DeRisi et al.,1997 ; Lockhart et al., 1996; Wen et al., 1998). Unlike classical experiments, where the expression levels of only a few genes were reported, DNA microarray experiments can measure all the genes of an organism, providing a“genomic”viewpoint on gene expression. As a consequence, this technology facilitates new experimental approaches for understanding gene expression and regulation (Iyer et al., 1999; Spellman et al., 1998).

A central focus of genomic research concerns understanding the manner in which cells execute and control the enormous number of operations required for their function. Biological systems behave in an exceedingly parallel and extraordinarily integrated fashion. Feedback and damping are routine even for the most common activities. Thus, in this area of genomic biology, single gene perspectives are becoming increasingly limited for gaining insight into biological processes. Network applications are becoming increasingly important for making progress in our understanding of the manner in which genes and molecules collectively form a biological system and harnessing this understanding in educated intervention for correcting human diseases. Such approaches inevitably require computational and formal methods to process massive amounts of data, understand general principles governing the system under study, and make useful predictions about system behavior in the presence of known conditions. There is a rather wide spectrum of approaches for modeling gene regulatory networks, each with its own assumptions, data requirements, and goals. The group of the most popular models includes: Boolean, Probabilistic Boolean and Bayesian networks.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to bioinformatics. OpenStax CNX. Oct 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10240/1.3
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