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The NCPEA Handbook of Doctoral Programs in Educational Leadership: Issues and Challenges, Chapter 1, authored by Frederick L. Dembowski.

There are many choices that need to be made in the development and/or redesign of doctoral program. Among these choices are the usual questions including the following:

  • How many credit hours post Master’s should it be? (usually 60)
  • How long can a student take to complete? (usually 6 or 7 years, with a possible leave of absence and an extension of time for unusual circumstances such as the doctoral program disruption caused by Hurricane Katrina)
  • Will students have a choice of courses to take? (Are the courses proscribed or can a student develop a program plan of courses selected from a menu of possible choices?)
  • Is there are comprehensive examination? If so, what is the nature and content of it? Is it written, oral, or both?
  • Does the dissertation have to use traditional research (i.e. quantitative or qualitative research methodologies) or can they do a non-traditional dissertation such as a cost/benefit analysis, a program evaluation study, or a program design?

This is, of course, not a comprehensive listing of the choices to be made in the design of a doctoral program. The common (mis)perception is that doctoral programs in educational leadership nationally have essentially the same components. However, there exists great variation in the design and delivery of these components.

This chapter reports the results of a survey of doctoral programs in educational leadership that was conducted in fall 2006 for inclusion in this volume. The universities that offered doctoral degree programs in educational leadership were identified in the 24th Edition of the Educational Administration Directory 2005-2006, compiled by Creighton, Coleman, and Dou for NCPEA. In that directory, there were 128 universities that offered an EdD degree program in educational leadership/administration, 48 universities that offered a PhD degree program, and 60 universities that offered both the EdD and PhD degree programs. A survey instrument was sent to a sample of 50%, or 88, of these 176 universities. The sample universities were randomly selected, but had a geographically representative distribution. The survey instrument was sent via email to the chair of the selected educational leadership departments. A response was received from 23 or approximately 25% of the sample universities. The survey instrument consisted of questions concerned with 21 aspects regarding their doctoral program. The results of the analysis of the survey are reported below.


The first series of questions focused on the use of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) as an admission requirement. The first question asked if they (the doctoral program) used the GRE. Of the 23 respondent universities, less than half required the GRE. Eleven require the Verbal portion of the GRE, while only 9 require the quantitative portion of the GRE. The average GRE verbal score was 511, with one university requiring a minimum required score of 400 and with a required score of 650. The average GRE quantitative score was 507. The total minimum required GRE, including both the verbal and quantitative portions of the GRE, had an average of 973, with the majority of the degree programs requiring a minimum of 1000. It must be noted that both the content and the scoring of the GRE will be changed as of September, 2007.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, The handbook of doctoral programs: issues and challenges. OpenStax CNX. Dec 10, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10427/1.3
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