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The aim of Durban’s Local Agenda 21 is the development of a system of environmental management that will support this city in its development as a city, but would also be sustainable in terms of the environment. This requires that new policy (with adjustments of direction and new ideals), institutions (such as committees or divisions) and procedures (ways of working) are planned. It also

requires monitoring (i.e. supervision and testing), revision and improvement of performance so that the environment remains preserved as stipulated in the sustainable aims.

During the Earth deliberations that took place in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, a global plan of action for sustainable development was compiled. This plan of action is known as Agenda 21 . The aim of Agenda 21 is to create principles and programmes to bring about changes in the relationship between development and the impact of development on the Earth’s natural resources. This means that plans are made to ensure that development is carefully controlled so that the earth, nature, the resources and the quality of people’s lives are not destroyed. Sustainable development therefore includes social, economic and environmental aspects. (Exchange ideas about the meaning of these terms and give examples. Find out how these ideas compare with your teacher’s explanation.)

The aim was to apply the action plan internationally at local government level. In 1994/95 - as part of the RDP in South Africa (do you recognise this abbreviation?), the three largest metropolitan (urban) areas (Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban) applied this programme. The programme acted like a catalyst to set activities going right through the country. Cities and towns such as Kimberley, Port Elizabeth, Pietermaritzburg and East London later put into practice their own Agenda 21 ideas. Provinces such as KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo launched their own initiatives.

a) Write down a definition of Agenda 21 . (Explain what it is how it came about and what its purpose is in your own words.)

Agenda 21 is __________

b) What is meant by Local Agenda 21 ? (Clue: words such as ‘own’ and ‘local’ may help.)

c) Write down the principles of Local Agenda 21 .

d) Divide into four groups. Each group must concentrate on one of the principles.

In a short paragraph, write down what the principle that was allocated to your group means, e.g. what does ‘people-centred development’ mean? Give examples.

Place yourself in the position of a consultant to the town councils of Johannesburg, Cape Town or Kimberley. Develop ideas for the implementation or execution of your principle at local level. Write down your ideas and prepare a presentation that must be considered by the town council. Write a covering letter in which you indicate the central ideas of the presentation that is attached. Set out your ideas clearly and provide practical examples that may contain sketches and perhaps a map of the city.

(The RDP is part of this process. Try and obtain pamphlets from the town council that may be of help in your presentation. Ask people who live with you if they know what RDP stands for and find out what the equivalent in Afrikaans is – or in any other language.)


Learning outcomes (LO)
LO 1
GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH The learner can apply research skills to study geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment standards(AS)
This is clear when the learner:
1.3 analyses and makes inferences from sources such as photo’s, maps, atlases, graphs and statistics [working with sources];
1.5 recognises information in the field and records it [working with sources].
LO 2
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner can demonstrate geographical and environmental knowledge and understanding.
This is clear when the learner:
2.2 identifies ways in which Science and Technology have a positive and a negative influence on development [people and resources].



  1. It is a world wide plan of action to ensure sustainable development.
  • It is a wide reaching plan of action that is applied
  • on GLOBAL level
  • NATIONAL level
  • LOCAL level
  • by organisations and governments
  • who are in affiliation with the United Nations
  • applied in all areas where human activities have an impact on the environment

It was launched in June 1992 during the Earth deliberations in Rio de Janeiro.

The purpose of Agenda 21 was to create principles and programmes to establish

a better balance between development and the natural resources of the Earth.

These principles and programmes are implemented and applied internationally

and on local management level.

The purpose is to empower Local Government (Municipalities and Metropolitan Boards) to compile and manage their own Agenda 21 program according to their own local requirements.

  1. People-centred development: : It focuses on the training and empowerment of people.

Provide basic needs : The purpose is to supply basic facilities and services to all people.

Integrated planning and development : Instead of a sector-based approach it focuses on the development of the whole area and its people and not only on certain aspects or people.

Sustainable development : It focused on the conservation of the environment and its resources despite development.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11057/1.1
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