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The <media> element is the primary building block for including multimedia files in your module. In its simplest form, a <media> element contains three pieces of information:

  • A unique id
  • Alt text
  • A media subtype element, such as <image>

The code snippet below shows a simple example of <media> element: <media id="media_example" alt="a dog on a bed"><image mime-type="image/jpeg" src="image1.jpg"/></media>

This code results in the following display:

a dog on a bed

Note that the resulting image displays inline ; when included as the child of another element, such as <para> , the media element will display in line with the surrounding text by default: <para id="myparagraph"><media id="media_example2" alt="a dog on a bed"><image mime-type="image/jpeg" src="image1.jpg"/></media>This is my dog. Isn't he cute?</para>

This code results in the following display:

a dog on a bed This is my dog. Isn't he cute?

Each <media> must contain a media subtype element from the following list:

  • <image>
  • <video>
  • <flash>
  • <audio>
  • <java-applet>
  • <labview>
  • <text>
  • <download>


The <figure> element allows you to set a media element apart from the surrounding text and highlight it as a labeled figure within the module. In it's simplest form, a <figure> contains two pieces of information:

  • A unique ID
  • A <media> element

The code snippet below shows an example of a <figure> element: <figure id="figure_example"><media id="dog_on_bed" alt="a dog on a bed"><image mime-type="image/jpeg" src="image1.jpg"/></media></figure>

This example results in the following:

a dog on a bed

You'll notice that the figure is labeled as " [link] " - this information was not provided in the CNXML code, but is instead supplied automatically by Connexions based on the figure's place within the document. As you add, move, and delete figures in your module, you do not have to worry about keeping track of the figure numbering - this is done for you when the page is displayed to the reader. Also, unlike the <media> example shown previously, the image in this example is displayed in block mode rather than inline mode.

When referring to figures in your Connexions modules, you can take advantage of the figure's unique ID to create a dynamic reference that is automatically labeled for you. To do so, simply create an empty <link> that points to the <figure> ; in this case, <link target-id="figure_example" /> results in the following link: [link] .

Connexions will automatically label the text of the link to match the figure's label. Dynamic references can also be created for other "numbered" elements, such as <equation> , <example> , <exercise> , etc.

The <figure> also provides additional options that allow you to further highlight and describe an enclosed <media> element. The following example illustrates several additional elements:

  • <title> , which adds a title to the figure.
  • <caption> , which adds a caption allowing the author to provide a description or context for the figure.
  • <label> , which overrides the default 'Figure' label; this is especially useful for modules not written in English.
<figure id="figure_example_extended"><label>Figura</label><title>Mi Perro Benny</title><media id="dogpic" alt="Perro sentado en la cama"><image mime-type="image/jpeg" src="image1.jpg" /></media><caption>Este es mi perro Benny haciendo lo que hace mejor.</caption></figure> This example results in the following display:

Mi perro benny

Perro sentado en la cama
Este es mi perro Benny haciendo lo que hace mejor.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ideas and tools for improving connexions modules and collections. OpenStax CNX. Mar 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11184/1.2
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