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A.d. 601 to 700

Backward to A.D. 501 to 600

The chief features characterizing this century are the persistence of the "Dark Ages" in Europe, the amazing eruption of the Arab armies and the Moslem religion out of the desert of Arabia and the early dominance of Turkish people in Central Asia, with marked effects even in China.

The christian church

We have previously mentioned that in these "Dark Ages" education survived only as a luxury of the clergy. The Roman Church itself could give little or no direction at this time because of chaos in Italy and the lowering of Byzantine prestige. The Emperor Heraclius attempted to regain Syria and Armenia from Persia by conciliating their monophysitism by producing a compromise called "monotheletism" which suggested that the union of God and man in Christ, although not submerging the identity of either, was sufficiently complete to manifest itself outwardly in one divine-human energy. This proposal only irritated the rest of the empire and when the Arabs overran the region it was abandoned. As a last blow, Islam appeared on the world scene in this century to further menace the Christian Church. (Ref. 137 )

The islamic church

Most of the present day taboos of the Islamic religion were present at its inception. The Koran prohibitions include:

  • Pork, as an impurity - chiefly a carry-over from nomad life. One cannot drive pigs on great migrations
  • Animal blood - a pollution legacy from Old Testament Judaism
  • Wine, considered an abomination. It is said that some of the prophet's early levies had been found too drunk to fight (Ref. 211 )

As is well known, the original stories from the Koran are much like the Old Testament, with the same early characters, including Abraham and his tribe. Both Judaism and Islam came from the same sources in the desert. Islam was essentially a military empire in the beginning and only became a culture after it absorbed a measure of Persian thought. (Ref. 213 )

International jewry

In this and the next few centuries, Jews became more and more isolated as a commercial sect. Especially in northern Europe they were excluded from owning land and the feudal system resulted in the constant threat of confiscation of property and even expulsion from the country. Expulsion started in Spain just after the beginning of the century with an edict from Emperor Heraclius. The Carolingians in Austrasia, France, however, gave them special charters, protection and commercial privileges. (Ref. 8 ) In their native Levant, many Jews converted to Islam and actually contributed much to the final Moslem concepts. (Ref. 213 )

Forward to A.D. 701 to 800

    Choose different region

  • Africa
  • America
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • Europe
  • The Far East
  • The Indian Subcontinent
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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