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A.d. 301 to 400

Backward to A.D. 201 to 300

Although the beginnings had been seen earlier, this century is usually listed as the crucial one for the fall of Rome. Central and western Europe became more and more important as both Celtic and Germanic peoples, now more or less "civilized", began to dominate their respective areas. The Near East slowly declined as the Roman Empire waned, with only Byzantium showing signs of vigorous life. Even China was in disarray and India was probably the most stable and progressive of all the Old World areas at this time.

The christian church

The newly organized Christian Church began to make itself felt in world affairs, even though there was already a splitting of the Christians into many factions. The Council of Nicaea in 325 condemned Arianism as heretical, to begin one of the major divisions. The priest Arius had subordinated the "Son" to the "Father". Other heresies including the Manichists, Donatists and Monophysites will be mentioned below. In the main line of the church, the "elders" were already being superseded by a hierarchy of bishops and now a full-scale diocesan framework appeared, modeled on that of the Roman Empire. Three of what have been called "the four fathers"

Reference 213 , page 143
of the Latin church lived in this century: St. Jerome (320-400), translator of the Bible from Greek to Latin; St. Ambrose (340-397), Archbishop of Milan, who wrote Duties of the Clergy; and St. Augustine (354-430), Bishop of Hippo, who introduced an essence of Greek philosophy into Christianity. The fourth "father", Pope Gregory, we shall meet in the 6th century. (Ref. 213 )

In A.D. 367 Athanasius, the powerful Archbishop of Alexandria ordered all apocryphal books with "heretical" tendencies to be purged and it is probable that the Gnostic Gospels referred to in previous chapters were hidden at this time. In the section on ASIA MINOR in this chapter, we shall examine the effect of the Emperor Constantine the Great on Christianity.

International jewry

Thus far we have limited our discussions of the Jews and their religion to the sections on ISRAEL, but since many were widely dispersed after the Romano-Jewish Wars, it seems appropriate to relate the fate of these people on an international level from this chapter on. The adoption of Christianity in the Roman Empire in this century made a change for the worse for the many Jews distributed throughout. It was not long before they were forbidden to proselytize, build new synagogues, own Christian slaves or hold political office in many areas. (Ref. 68 )

Forward to A.D. 401 to 500

    Choose different region

  • Africa
  • America
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • Europe
  • The Far East
  • The Indian Subcontinent
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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