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  • Explain the importance of the time constant, τ , and calculate the time constant for a given resistance and capacitance.
  • Explain why batteries in a flashlight gradually lose power and the light dims over time.
  • Describe what happens to a graph of the voltage across a capacitor over time as it charges.
  • Explain how a timing circuit works and list some applications.
  • Calculate the necessary speed of a strobe flash needed to “stop” the movement of an object over a particular length.

When you use a flash camera, it takes a few seconds to charge the capacitor that powers the flash. The light flash discharges the capacitor in a tiny fraction of a second. Why does charging take longer than discharging? This question and a number of other phenomena that involve charging and discharging capacitors are discussed in this module.

RC Circuits

An RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuit    is one containing a resistor     R size 12{R} {} and a capacitor     C size 12{C} {} . The capacitor is an electrical component that stores electric charge.

[link] shows a simple RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuit that employs a DC (direct current) voltage source. The capacitor is initially uncharged. As soon as the switch is closed, current flows to and from the initially uncharged capacitor. As charge increases on the capacitor plates, there is increasing opposition to the flow of charge by the repulsion of like charges on each plate.

In terms of voltage, this is because voltage across the capacitor is given by V c = Q / C size 12{V rSub { size 8{c} } =Q/C} {} , where Q size 12{Q} {} is the amount of charge stored on each plate and C size 12{C} {} is the capacitance    . This voltage opposes the battery, growing from zero to the maximum emf when fully charged. The current thus decreases from its initial value of I 0 = emf R size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } = { {"emf"} over {R} } } {} to zero as the voltage on the capacitor reaches the same value as the emf. When there is no current, there is no IR size 12{ ital "IR"} {} drop, and so the voltage on the capacitor must then equal the emf of the voltage source. This can also be explained with Kirchhoff’s second rule (the loop rule), discussed in Kirchhoff’s Rules , which says that the algebraic sum of changes in potential around any closed loop must be zero.

The initial current is I 0 = emf R size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } = { {"emf"} over {R} } } {} , because all of the IR size 12{ ital "IR"} {} drop is in the resistance. Therefore, the smaller the resistance, the faster a given capacitor will be charged. Note that the internal resistance of the voltage source is included in R size 12{R} {} , as are the resistances of the capacitor and the connecting wires. In the flash camera scenario above, when the batteries powering the camera begin to wear out, their internal resistance rises, reducing the current and lengthening the time it takes to get ready for the next flash.

Part a shows a circuit with a cell of e m f script E connected in series with a resistor R, a capacitor C, and a switch to close the circuit. The current is shown flowing in a clockwise direction. The capacitor plates are shown to have a charge positive q and negative q respectively. Part b shows a graph of the variation of voltage of the capacitor with time. The voltage is plotted along the vertical axis and the time is along the horizontal axis. The graph shows a smooth upward rising curve which approaches a maximum and flattens out at maximum voltage equal to e m f script E over time.
(a) An RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuit with an initially uncharged capacitor. Current flows in the direction shown (opposite of electron flow) as soon as the switch is closed. Mutual repulsion of like charges in the capacitor progressively slows the flow as the capacitor is charged, stopping the current when the capacitor is fully charged and Q = C emf size 12{Q=C cdot "emf"} {} . (b) A graph of voltage across the capacitor versus time, with the switch closing at time t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} . (Note that in the two parts of the figure, the capital script E stands for emf, q stands for the charge stored on the capacitor, and τ is the RC time constant.)

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas). OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11649/1.2
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