# 9.4 Viscosity and laminar flow; poiseuille’s law  (Page 7/12)

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The arterioles (small arteries) leading to an organ, constrict in order to decrease flow to the organ. To shut down an organ, blood flow is reduced naturally to 1.00% of its original value. By what factor did the radii of the arterioles constrict? Penguins do this when they stand on ice to reduce the blood flow to their feet.

0.316

Angioplasty is a technique in which arteries partially blocked with plaque are dilated to increase blood flow. By what factor must the radius of an artery be increased in order to increase blood flow by a factor of 10?

(a) Suppose a blood vessel’s radius is decreased to 90.0% of its original value by plaque deposits and the body compensates by increasing the pressure difference along the vessel to keep the flow rate constant. By what factor must the pressure difference increase? (b) If turbulence is created by the obstruction, what additional effect would it have on the flow rate?

(a) 1.52

(b) Turbulence will decrease the flow rate of the blood, which would require an even larger increase in the pressure difference, leading to higher blood pressure.

A spherical particle falling at a terminal speed in a liquid must have the gravitational force balanced by the drag force and the buoyant force. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid, while the drag force is assumed to be given by Stokes Law, ${F}_{s}=\text{6}\pi r\eta v$ . Show that the terminal speed is given by

$v=\frac{{2R}^{2}g}{9\eta }\left({\rho }_{\text{s}}-{\rho }_{1}\right),$

where $R$ is the radius of the sphere, ${\rho }_{\text{s}}$ is its density, and ${\rho }_{1}$ is the density of the fluid and $\eta$ the coefficient of viscosity.

Using the equation of the previous problem, find the viscosity of motor oil in which a steel ball of radius 0.8 mm falls with a terminal speed of 4.32 cm/s. The densities of the ball and the oil are 7.86 and 0.88 g/mL, respectively.

$\text{225}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{mPa}\cdot \text{s}$

A skydiver will reach a terminal velocity when the air drag equals their weight. For a skydiver with high speed and a large body, turbulence is a factor. The drag force then is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity. Taking the drag force to be ${F}_{\text{D}}=\frac{1}{2}\rho {\mathrm{Av}}^{\text{2}}$ and setting this equal to the person’s weight, find the terminal speed for a person falling “spread eagle.” Find both a formula and a number for ${v}_{\text{t}}$ , with assumptions as to size.

A layer of oil 1.50 mm thick is placed between two microscope slides. Researchers find that a force of $5\text{.}\text{50}×{\text{10}}^{-4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$ is required to glide one over the other at a speed of 1.00 cm/s when their contact area is $6\text{.}\text{00}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{2}$ . What is the oil’s viscosity? What type of oil might it be?

$0\text{.}\text{138 Pa}\cdot \text{s,}$

or

Olive oil.

(a) Verify that a 19.0% decrease in laminar flow through a tube is caused by a 5.00% decrease in radius, assuming that all other factors remain constant, as stated in the text. (b) What increase in flow is obtained from a 5.00% increase in radius, again assuming all other factors remain constant?

[link] dealt with the flow of saline solution in an IV system. (a) Verify that a pressure of $1\text{.}\text{62}×{\text{10}}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{N/m}}^{2}$ is created at a depth of 1.61 m in a saline solution, assuming its density to be that of sea water. (b) Calculate the new flow rate if the height of the saline solution is decreased to 1.50 m. (c) At what height would the direction of flow be reversed? (This reversal can be a problem when patients stand up.)

(a) $1\text{.}\text{62}×{\text{10}}^{\text{4}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{N/m}}^{2}$

(b) $0\text{.}{\text{111 cm}}^{3}\text{/s}$

(c)10.6 cm

When physicians diagnose arterial blockages, they quote the reduction in flow rate. If the flow rate in an artery has been reduced to 10.0% of its normal value by a blood clot and the average pressure difference has increased by 20.0%, by what factor has the clot reduced the radius of the artery?

During a marathon race, a runner’s blood flow increases to 10.0 times her resting rate. Her blood’s viscosity has dropped to 95.0% of its normal value, and the blood pressure difference across the circulatory system has increased by 50.0%. By what factor has the average radii of her blood vessels increased?

1.59

Water supplied to a house by a water main has a pressure of $3\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{N/m}}^{2}$ early on a summer day when neighborhood use is low. This pressure produces a flow of 20.0 L/min through a garden hose. Later in the day, pressure at the exit of the water main and entrance to the house drops, and a flow of only 8.00 L/min is obtained through the same hose. (a) What pressure is now being supplied to the house, assuming resistance is constant? (b) By what factor did the flow rate in the water main increase in order to cause this decrease in delivered pressure? The pressure at the entrance of the water main is $5\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{N/m}}^{2}$ , and the original flow rate was 200 L/min. (c) How many more users are there, assuming each would consume 20.0 L/min in the morning?

An oil gusher shoots crude oil 25.0 m into the air through a pipe with a 0.100-m diameter. Neglecting air resistance but not the resistance of the pipe, and assuming laminar flow, calculate the gauge pressure at the entrance of the 50.0-m-long vertical pipe. Take the density of the oil to be $\text{900}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{kg/m}}^{3}$ and its viscosity to be $1\text{.}\text{00}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left({\text{N/m}}^{2}\right)\cdot \text{s}$ (or $1.00\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{Pa}\cdot \text{s}$ ). Note that you must take into account the pressure due to the 50.0-m column of oil in the pipe.

$2\text{.}\text{95}×{\text{10}}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{N/m}}^{2}$ (gauge pressure)

Concrete is pumped from a cement mixer to the place it is being laid, instead of being carried in wheelbarrows. The flow rate is 200.0 L/min through a 50.0-m-long, 8.00-cm-diameter hose, and the pressure at the pump is $8\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{N/m}}^{2}$ . (a) Calculate the resistance of the hose. (b) What is the viscosity of the concrete, assuming the flow is laminar? (c) How much power is being supplied, assuming the point of use is at the same level as the pump? You may neglect the power supplied to increase the concrete’s velocity.

Consider a coronary artery constricted by arteriosclerosis. Construct a problem in which you calculate the amount by which the diameter of the artery is decreased, based on an assessment of the decrease in flow rate.

Consider a river that spreads out in a delta region on its way to the sea. Construct a problem in which you calculate the average speed at which water moves in the delta region, based on the speed at which it was moving up river. Among the things to consider are the size and flow rate of the river before it spreads out and its size once it has spread out. You can construct the problem for the river spreading out into one large river or into multiple smaller rivers.

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