# 9.4 Matched or paired samples -- rrc math 1020  (Page 3/13)

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Seven eighth graders at Kennedy Middle School measured how far they could push the shot-put with their dominant (writing) hand and their weaker (non-writing) hand. They thought that they could push equal distances with either hand. The data were collected and recorded in [link] .

Distance (in feet) using Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7
Dominant Hand 30 26 34 17 19 26 20
Weaker Hand 28 14 27 18 17 26 16

Conduct a hypothesis test to determine whether the mean difference in distances between the children’s dominant versus weaker hands is significant.

Record the differences data. Calculate the differences by subtracting the distances with the weaker hand from the distances with the dominant hand. The data for the differences are: {2, 12, 7, –1, 2, 0, 4}. The differences have a normal distribution.

Using the differences data, calculate the sample mean and the sample standard deviation. ${\overline{x}}_{d}$ = 3.71, ${s}_{d}$ = 4.5.

Random variable: ${\overline{X}}_{d}$ = mean difference in the distances between the hands.

Distribution for the hypothesis test: t 6

H 0 : μ d = 0  H a : μ d ≠ 0

Graph:

Calculate the p -value: The p -value is 0.0716 (using the data directly).

(test statistic = 2.18. p -value = 0.0719 using

Decision: Assume α = 0.05. Since α < p -value, Do not reject H 0 .

Conclusion: At the 5% level of significance, from the sample data, there is not sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a difference in the children’s weaker and dominant hands to push the shot-put.

## Try-it

Five ball players think they can throw the same distance with their dominant hand (throwing) and off-hand (catching hand). The data were collected and recorded in [link] . Conduct a hypothesis test to determine whether the mean difference in distances between the dominant and off-hand is significant. Test at the 5% level.

Player 1 Player 2 Player 3 Player 4 Player 5
Dominant Hand 120 111 135 140 125
Off-hand 105 109 98 111 99

The p -level is 0.0230, so we can reject the null hypothesis. The data show that the players do not throw the same distance with their off-hands as they do with their dominant hands.

## Chapter review

A hypothesis test for matched or paired samples (t-test) has these characteristics:

• Test the differences by subtracting one measurement from the other measurement
• Random Variable: ${\overline{x}}_{d}$ = mean of the differences
• Distribution: Student’s-t distribution with n – 1 degrees of freedom
• If the number of differences is small (less than 30), the differences must follow a normal distribution.
• Two samples are drawn from the same set of objects.
• Samples are dependent.

## Formula review

Test Statistic ( t -score): t = $\frac{{\overline{x}}_{d}-{\mu }_{d}}{\left(\frac{{s}_{d}}{\sqrt{n}}\right)}$

where:

${\overline{x}}_{d}$ is the mean of the sample differences. μ d is the mean of the population differences. s d is the sample standard deviation of the differences. n is the sample size.

Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. A study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a software patch in reducing system failures over a six-month period. Results for randomly selected installations are shown in [link] . The “before” value is matched to an “after” value, and the differences are calculated. The differences have a normal distribution. Test at the 1% significance level.

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Joseph
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nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
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There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
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Bhagvanji
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Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
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Application of nanotechnology in medicine
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Kamaluddeen
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narayan
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Damian
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Professor
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Professor
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Rafiq
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scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
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Santosh
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Rafiq
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The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
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nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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