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  • Explain the concept of resistivity.
  • Use resistivity to calculate the resistance of specified configurations of material.
  • Use the thermal coefficient of resistivity to calculate the change of resistance with temperature.

Material and shape dependence of resistance

The resistance of an object depends on its shape and the material of which it is composed. The cylindrical resistor in [link] is easy to analyze, and, by so doing, we can gain insight into the resistance of more complicated shapes. As you might expect, the cylinder’s electric resistance R size 12{R} {} is directly proportional to its length L size 12{L} {} , similar to the resistance of a pipe to fluid flow. The longer the cylinder, the more collisions charges will make with its atoms. The greater the diameter of the cylinder, the more current it can carry (again similar to the flow of fluid through a pipe). In fact, R size 12{R} {} is inversely proportional to the cylinder’s cross-sectional area A size 12{A} {} .

A cylindrical conductor of length L and cross section A is shown. The resistivity of the cylindrical section is represented as rho. The resistance of this cross section R is equal to rho L divided by A. The section of length L of cylindrical conductor is shown equivalent to a resistor represented by symbol R.
A uniform cylinder of length L size 12{L} {} and cross-sectional area A size 12{A} {} . Its resistance to the flow of current is similar to the resistance posed by a pipe to fluid flow. The longer the cylinder, the greater its resistance. The larger its cross-sectional area A size 12{A} {} , the smaller its resistance.

For a given shape, the resistance depends on the material of which the object is composed. Different materials offer different resistance to the flow of charge. We define the resistivity     ρ size 12{ρ} {} of a substance so that the resistance R size 12{R} {} of an object is directly proportional to ρ size 12{ρ} {} . Resistivity ρ size 12{ρ} {} is an intrinsic property of a material, independent of its shape or size. The resistance R size 12{R} {} of a uniform cylinder of length L size 12{L} {} , of cross-sectional area A size 12{A} {} , and made of a material with resistivity ρ size 12{ρ} {} , is

R = ρL A . size 12{R = { {ρL} over {A} } "."} {}

[link] gives representative values of ρ size 12{ρ} {} . The materials listed in the table are separated into categories of conductors, semiconductors, and insulators, based on broad groupings of resistivities. Conductors have the smallest resistivities, and insulators have the largest; semiconductors have intermediate resistivities. Conductors have varying but large free charge densities, whereas most charges in insulators are bound to atoms and are not free to move. Semiconductors are intermediate, having far fewer free charges than conductors, but having properties that make the number of free charges depend strongly on the type and amount of impurities in the semiconductor. These unique properties of semiconductors are put to use in modern electronics, as will be explored in later chapters.

Resistivities ρ size 12{ρ} {} Of various materials at 20º C
Material Resistivity ρ size 12{ρ} {} ( Ω m size 12{ %OMEGA cdot m} {} )
Conductors
Silver 1 . 59 × 10 8 size 12{1 "." "59" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Copper 1 . 72 × 10 8 size 12{1 "." "72" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Gold 2 . 44 × 10 8 size 12{2 "." "44" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Aluminum 2 . 65 × 10 8 size 12{2 "." "65" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Tungsten 5 . 6 × 10 8 size 12{5 "." 6 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Iron 9 . 71 × 10 8 size 12{9 "." "71" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Platinum 10 . 6 × 10 8 size 12{"10" "." 6 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Steel 20 × 10 8 size 12{"20" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Lead 22 × 10 8 size 12{"22" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Manganin (Cu, Mn, Ni alloy) 44 × 10 8 size 12{"44" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Constantan (Cu, Ni alloy) 49 × 10 8 size 12{"49" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Mercury 96 × 10 8 size 12{"96" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Nichrome (Ni, Fe, Cr alloy) 100 × 10 8 size 12{"100" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } } {}
Semiconductors Values depend strongly on amounts and types of impurities
Carbon (pure) 3.5 × 10 5
Carbon ( 3.5 60 ) × 10 5
Germanium (pure) 600 × 10 3
Germanium ( 1 600 ) × 10 3 size 12{ \( 1 - "600" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {}
Silicon (pure) 2300
Silicon 0.1–2300
Insulators
Amber 5 × 10 14 size 12{5 times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } } {}
Glass 10 9 10 14 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{9} } - "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } } {}
Lucite >10 13 size 12{>"10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } } {}
Mica 10 11 10 15 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } - "10" rSup { size 8{"15"} } } {}
Quartz (fused) 75 × 10 16 size 12{"75" times "10" rSup { size 8{"16"} } } {}
Rubber (hard) 10 13 10 16 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } - "10" rSup { size 8{"16"} } } {}
Sulfur 10 15 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"15"} } } {}
Teflon >10 13 size 12{>"10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } } {}
Wood 10 8 10 11 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{8} } - "10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } } {}

Questions & Answers

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Brian Reply
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Rafiq
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Damian
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
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Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
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what king of growth are you checking .?
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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Adin Reply
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Physics of the world around us. OpenStax CNX. May 21, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11797/1.1
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