# 9.21 Sspd_chapter 7_part 6_basic circuit concepts_continued 3

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SSPD_Chapter 7_Part 6_Basic Circuit Concepts_continued 3 calculates the rise time and the fall timne and proves that for symmetric switching PMOS width must be 2.5 times wider than NMOS width.

SSPD_Chapter 7_Part 6_Basic Circuit Concepts_continued 3

7.6.4. Formal Estimation of CMOS Inverter delay.

In Figure 7.6.4.1 we show a CMOS Inverter being driven by square wave and loaded with input capacitance of the subsequent stage. We model the CMOS Inverter during switching transients by constant current source driving the load capacitance.

The switching transient is shown in Figure 7.6.4.2.

As can be seen in Figure 7.6.4.2, during HIGH to LOW switching NMOS (Q n ) provides the low impedance path to ground and hence sinks the discharge current. Hence saturation current of NMOS provides the I D .

Similarly during LOW to HIGH switching PMOS (Q p ) provides the low impedance path from V DD bus to the load capacitance and hence sources the charging current. Hence saturation current of PMOS provides the I C .

Referring to the circuit model in Figure 7.6.4.1 we see that:

Rate of change of capacitance voltage = Constant Current/C

Therefore:

Therefore:

Therefore:

During output HIGH to LOW transient: NMOS (Q n ) is sinking the current from the load capacitance hence constant current source is a discharge current I D coming as the saturation current of NMOS where

During output LOW to HIGH transient:PMOS(Q p ) is sourcing the current to the load capacitance hence constant current source is a charging current I C coming as the saturation current of PMOS where

But ∆V C = V DD , V GS = V DD and V T = 0.2 V DD therefore

Substituting Eq.7.6.4.6 in Eq 7.6.4.4 and Eq.7.6.4.5 we get:

Dividing Eq 7.6.4.8 by Eq.7.6.4.7 we get:

From Basic Electrical Properties we know that

From Device Physics we know that

We also know from section 7.3.12 titled ‘optimization of geometric parameters to achieve the beswt CMOS performance’ that :

Substituting the two conditions stated by Eq.7.6.4.8 and Eq.7.6.4.9 in Eq 7.6.4.7 we get

Eq 7.6.4.10 implies that we will get symmetric switching transients as well as maximum Noise Margin if satisfy the condition stated in Eq 7.6.4.11 namely

Hence CMOS layout will be as shown in Figure 7.6.4.3 for optimum performance in all sense of the word i.e in the sense of switching transient and in the sense of noise margin.

Two alternative layouts are shown in Figure 7.6.4.4.

In all the three figures, where metal has to connect to Poly-Si or to n-channel or to p-channel there a contact has to be made symbolized by black cross.

#### Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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