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SSPD_Chapter 7_Part 6_Basic Circuit Concepts_continued 3 calculates the rise time and the fall timne and proves that for symmetric switching PMOS width must be 2.5 times wider than NMOS width.

SSPD_Chapter 7_Part 6_Basic Circuit Concepts_continued 3

7.6.4. Formal Estimation of CMOS Inverter delay.

In Figure we show a CMOS Inverter being driven by square wave and loaded with input capacitance of the subsequent stage. We model the CMOS Inverter during switching transients by constant current source driving the load capacitance.

The switching transient is shown in Figure

As can be seen in Figure, during HIGH to LOW switching NMOS (Q n ) provides the low impedance path to ground and hence sinks the discharge current. Hence saturation current of NMOS provides the I D .

Similarly during LOW to HIGH switching PMOS (Q p ) provides the low impedance path from V DD bus to the load capacitance and hence sources the charging current. Hence saturation current of PMOS provides the I C .

Referring to the circuit model in Figure we see that:

Rate of change of capacitance voltage = Constant Current/C




During output HIGH to LOW transient: NMOS (Q n ) is sinking the current from the load capacitance hence constant current source is a discharge current I D coming as the saturation current of NMOS where

During output LOW to HIGH transient:PMOS(Q p ) is sourcing the current to the load capacitance hence constant current source is a charging current I C coming as the saturation current of PMOS where

But ∆V C = V DD , V GS = V DD and V T = 0.2 V DD therefore

Substituting Eq. in Eq and Eq. we get:

Dividing Eq by Eq. we get:

From Basic Electrical Properties we know that

From Device Physics we know that

We also know from section 7.3.12 titled ‘optimization of geometric parameters to achieve the beswt CMOS performance’ that :

Substituting the two conditions stated by Eq. and Eq. in Eq we get

Eq implies that we will get symmetric switching transients as well as maximum Noise Margin if satisfy the condition stated in Eq namely

Hence CMOS layout will be as shown in Figure for optimum performance in all sense of the word i.e in the sense of switching transient and in the sense of noise margin.

Two alternative layouts are shown in Figure

In all the three figures, where metal has to connect to Poly-Si or to n-channel or to p-channel there a contact has to be made symbolized by black cross.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
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Crow Reply
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RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
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I think
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Brian Reply
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industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
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scanning tunneling microscope
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
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sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Damian Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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