# 9.21 Sspd_chapter 7_part 6_basic circuit concepts_continued 3

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SSPD_Chapter 7_Part 6_Basic Circuit Concepts_continued 3 calculates the rise time and the fall timne and proves that for symmetric switching PMOS width must be 2.5 times wider than NMOS width.

SSPD_Chapter 7_Part 6_Basic Circuit Concepts_continued 3

7.6.4. Formal Estimation of CMOS Inverter delay.

In Figure 7.6.4.1 we show a CMOS Inverter being driven by square wave and loaded with input capacitance of the subsequent stage. We model the CMOS Inverter during switching transients by constant current source driving the load capacitance.

The switching transient is shown in Figure 7.6.4.2.

As can be seen in Figure 7.6.4.2, during HIGH to LOW switching NMOS (Q n ) provides the low impedance path to ground and hence sinks the discharge current. Hence saturation current of NMOS provides the I D .

Similarly during LOW to HIGH switching PMOS (Q p ) provides the low impedance path from V DD bus to the load capacitance and hence sources the charging current. Hence saturation current of PMOS provides the I C .

Referring to the circuit model in Figure 7.6.4.1 we see that:

Rate of change of capacitance voltage = Constant Current/C

Therefore:

Therefore:

Therefore:

During output HIGH to LOW transient: NMOS (Q n ) is sinking the current from the load capacitance hence constant current source is a discharge current I D coming as the saturation current of NMOS where

During output LOW to HIGH transient:PMOS(Q p ) is sourcing the current to the load capacitance hence constant current source is a charging current I C coming as the saturation current of PMOS where

But ∆V C = V DD , V GS = V DD and V T = 0.2 V DD therefore

Substituting Eq.7.6.4.6 in Eq 7.6.4.4 and Eq.7.6.4.5 we get:

Dividing Eq 7.6.4.8 by Eq.7.6.4.7 we get:

From Basic Electrical Properties we know that

From Device Physics we know that

We also know from section 7.3.12 titled ‘optimization of geometric parameters to achieve the beswt CMOS performance’ that :

Substituting the two conditions stated by Eq.7.6.4.8 and Eq.7.6.4.9 in Eq 7.6.4.7 we get

Eq 7.6.4.10 implies that we will get symmetric switching transients as well as maximum Noise Margin if satisfy the condition stated in Eq 7.6.4.11 namely

Hence CMOS layout will be as shown in Figure 7.6.4.3 for optimum performance in all sense of the word i.e in the sense of switching transient and in the sense of noise margin.

Two alternative layouts are shown in Figure 7.6.4.4.

In all the three figures, where metal has to connect to Poly-Si or to n-channel or to p-channel there a contact has to be made symbolized by black cross.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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