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To simplify a square root expression that does not involve a fraction, we can use the following two rules:

Simplifying square roots without fractions

  1. If a factor of the radicand contains a variable with an even exponent, the square root is obtained by dividing the exponent by 2.
  2. If a factor of the radicand contains a variable with an odd exponent, the square root is obtained by first factoring the variable factor into two factors so that one has an even exponent and the other has an exponent of 1, then using the product property of square roots.

Sample set a

Simplify each square root.

a 4 .     The exponent is even: 4 2 = 2. The exponent on the square root is 2.

a 4 = a 2

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a 6 b 10 .    Both exponents are even: 6 2 = 3 and 10 2 = 5. The exponent on the square root of a 6 is 3. The exponent on the square root if b 10 is 5.

a 6 b 10 = a 3 b 5

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y 5 .    The exponent is odd: y 5 = y 4 y . Then

y 5 = y 4 y = y 4 y = y 2 y

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36 a 7 b 11 c 20 = 6 2 a 6 a b 10 b c 20 a 7 = a 6 a , b 11 = b 10 b = 6 2 a 6 b 10 c 20 · a b by the commutative property of multiplication. = 6 2 a 6 b 10 c 20 a b by the product property of square roots. = 6 a 3 b 5 c 10 a b

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49 x 8 y 3 ( a 1 ) 6 = 7 2 x 8 y 2 y ( a 1 ) 6 = 7 2 x 8 y 2 ( a 1 ) 6 y = 7 x 4 y ( a 1 ) 3 y

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75 = 25 · 3 = 5 2 · 3 = 5 2 3 = 5 3

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Practice set a

Simplify each square root.

81 a 12 b 6 c 38

9 a 6 b 3 c 19

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144 x 4 y 80 ( b + 5 ) 16

12 x 2 y 40 ( b + 5 ) 8

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w 7 z 3 k 13

w 3 z k 6 w z k

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27 a 3 b 4 c 5 d 6

3 a b 2 c 2 d 3 3 a c

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180 m 4 n 15 ( a 12 ) 15

6 m 2 n 7 ( a 12 ) 7 5 n ( a 12 )

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Square roots involving fractions

A square root expression is in simplified form if there are

  1. no perfect squares in the radicand,
  2. no fractions in the radicand, or
  3. 3. no square root expressions in the denominator.

The square root expressions 5 a , 4 3 x y 5 , and 11 m 2 n a 4 2 x 2 are in simplified form.

The square root expressions 3 x 8 , 4 a 4 b 3 5 , and 2 y 3 x are not in simplified form.

Simplifying square roots with fractions

To simplify the square root expression x y ,

  1. Write the expression as x y using the rule x y = x y .
  2. Multiply the fraction by 1 in the form of y y .
  3. Simplify the remaining fraction, x y y .

Rationalizing the denominator

The process involved in step 2 is called rationalizing the denominator. This process removes square root expressions from the denominator using the fact that ( y ) ( y ) = y .

Sample set b

Simplify each square root.

3 5 = 3 5 = 3 5 · 5 5 = 15 5

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9 8 = 9 8 = 9 8 · 8 8 = 3 8 8 = 3 4 · 2 8 = 3 4 2 8 = 3 · 2 2 8 = 3 2 4

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k 2 m 3 = k 2 m 3 = k m 3 = k m 2 m = k m 2 m = k m m = k m m · m m = k m m m m = k m m · m = k m m 2

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x 2 8 x + 16 = ( x 4 ) 2 = x 4

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Practice set b

Simplify each square root.

32 a 5 b 7

4 a 2 2 a b b 4

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Exercises

For the following problems, simplify each of the radical expressions.

100 x 5 y 11

10 x 2 y 5 x y

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5 16 m 6 n 7

20 m 3 n 3 n

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50 a 3 b 9

5 a b 4 2 a b

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4 18 a 5 b 17

12 a 2 b 8 2 a b

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4 75 a 4 b 6

20 a 2 b 3 3

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9 a 2 b 3

3 a b b

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m 6 n 8 p 12 q 20

m 3 n 4 p 6 q 10

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49 x 2 y 5 z 9 25 a 3 b 11

7 x y 2 z 4 a b y z 5 a 2 b 6

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( a 3 ) 4 ( a 1 ) 2

( a 3 ) 2 ( a 1 )

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( b + 7 ) 8 ( b 7 ) 6

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a 2 10 a + 25

( a 5 )

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( a 2 2 a + 1 ) 4

( a 1 ) 4

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Exercises for review

( [link] ) Solve the inequality 3 ( a + 2 ) 2 ( 3 a + 4 )

a 2 3

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( [link] ) Graph the inequality 6 x 5 ( x + 1 ) 6.
A horizontal line with arrows on both ends.

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( [link] ) Supply the missing words. When looking at a graph from left-to-right, lines with _______ slope rise, while lines with __________ slope fall.

positive; negative

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( [link] ) Simplify the complex fraction 5 + 1 x 5 1 x .

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( [link] ) Simplify 121 x 4 w 6 z 8 by removing the radical sign.

11 x 2 w 3 z 4

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Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10614/1.3
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