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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the process of DNA replication
  • Explain the importance of telomerase to DNA replication
  • Describe mechanisms of DNA repair

When a cell divides, it is important that each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the DNA. This is accomplished by the process of DNA replication. The replication of DNA occurs during the synthesis phase, or S phase, of the cell cycle, before the cell enters mitosis or meiosis.

The elucidation of the structure of the double helix provided a hint as to how DNA is copied. Recall that adenine nucleotides pair with thymine nucleotides, and cytosine with guanine. This means that the two strands are complementary to each other. For example, a strand of DNA with a nucleotide sequence of AGTCATGA will have a complementary strand with the sequence TCAGTACT ( [link] ).

Figure shows the ladder-like structure of DNA, with complementary bases making up the rungs of the ladder.
The two strands of DNA are complementary, meaning the sequence of bases in one strand can be used to create the correct sequence of bases in the other strand.

Because of the complementarity of the two strands, having one strand means that it is possible to recreate the other strand. This model for replication suggests that the two strands of the double helix separate during replication, and each strand serves as a template from which the new complementary strand is copied ( [link] ).

Illustration shows the semiconservative model of DNA synthesis. In the semi-conservative model, each newly synthesized strand pairs with a parent strand.
The semiconservative model of DNA replication is shown. Gray indicates the original DNA strands, and blue indicates newly synthesized DNA.

During DNA replication, each of the two strands that make up the double helix serves as a template from which new strands are copied. The new strand will be complementary to the parental or “old” strand. Each new double strand consists of one parental strand and one new daughter strand. This is known as semiconservative replication    . When two DNA copies are formed, they have an identical sequence of nucleotide bases and are divided equally into two daughter cells.

Dna replication in eukaryotes

Because eukaryotic genomes are very complex, DNA replication is a very complicated process that involves several enzymes and other proteins. It occurs in three main stages: initiation, elongation, and termination.

Recall that eukaryotic DNA is bound to proteins known as histones to form structures called nucleosomes. During initiation, the DNA is made accessible to the proteins and enzymes involved in the replication process. How does the replication machinery know where on the DNA double helix to begin? It turns out that there are specific nucleotide sequences called origins of replication at which replication begins. Certain proteins bind to the origin of replication while an enzyme called helicase    unwinds and opens up the DNA helix. As the DNA opens up, Y-shaped structures called replication forks are formed ( [link] ). Two replication forks are formed at the origin of replication, and these get extended in both directions as replication proceeds. There are multiple origins of replication on the eukaryotic chromosome, such that replication can occur simultaneously from several places in the genome.

Questions & Answers

discribe advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction
basi Reply
Compared to separate sexes and assuming self-fertilizing is not possible, what might be one advantage and one disadvantage to hermaphroditism?
Gift Reply
is nature of their environment among
basi
why are the laws of thermodynamics considered laws of nature and not scientific theories
Yolonda Reply
archea were given their own separate domain because they are?
Yolonda
which of the following is a basic component of all of the others?
Yolonda
which of the following organization levels is the least inclusive
Yolonda
which cell feature is absent in bacterial cells
Yolonda
which metric movies the base unit of measurement by one thousandth (0.001)?
Yolonda
What is biology?
Blessing Reply
List the branches of biology
Blessing
List the branches of biology
Blessing
List the branches of biology
Blessing
List the branches of biology
Blessing
must all prokaryotic cells posses a cell wall?
chris Reply
what is biology?
Cathy Reply
biology is basically the study of life
Robert
that's true
Tonia
it's the study of living things
Tonia
What is a celiac disease
Falase Reply
distinguish between properties and characteristics
Elee Reply
what are organelles
Elee
organelles are substances that makes up a cell
chris
what is biology
Prevail Reply
biology is science that studies life
Elee
it's the study of living and non living things
now that we have an estimate for the diameter of the cell.what estimate can we make about the volume of the cell?
faxhood Reply
why too much insulin result in low blood sugar
Leri Reply
For example, too much exercise can cost you to lose to much weight. Too much insulin will pull to much sugar out of your systemic system into your cells.
Eric
difference between DNA and RNA
Eyitayo Reply
DNA is deoxyribonuclaic acid. Deoxy refers to a lack of oxygen. The Ribose moity is missing an OH group. I think it is missing from the second C of the ring. RNA is ribonucleic acid. DNA has our genetic code in on it. RNA is translated from DNA and carries the blue print for protein synthesis.
Eric
The OH group on RNA prevents it from being reactive. But it is very unstable though. Would you want such a power tool floating around in your body, no. And you have three types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. Please let me know it this helped?😄
Eric
o
Browse
Eric answered this question perfectly
what determines the aeration level in the soil
Shola Reply
what is homeostasis?
Sarita Reply
It means balance in a biological system.
Eric
What is biology
Don Reply
Biology z the study of life
GOLDEN
what's biology
buran
biology is the study of living nd none living organism
Chinaza
Biology is the study of life
Quadri
yes Sir
Said
what's cell biology
Prince
biology is the study of life
Raheal
Biology is a science subject that deals with the study of living things and how they interact with there environment
chris

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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9
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