# 8.6 Convection  (Page 4/4)

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The movement of icebergs is another example of convection accompanied by a phase change. Suppose an iceberg drifts from Greenland into warmer Atlantic waters. Heat is removed from the warm ocean water when the ice melts and heat is released to the land mass when the iceberg forms on Greenland.

Explain why using a fan in the summer feels refreshing!

Using a fan increases the flow of air: warm air near your body is replaced by cooler air from elsewhere. Convection increases the rate of heat transfer so that moving air “feels” cooler than still air.

## Summary

• Convection is heat transfer by the macroscopic movement of mass. Convection can be natural or forced and generally transfers thermal energy faster than conduction. [link] gives wind-chill factors, indicating that moving air has the same chilling effect of much colder stationary air. Convection that occurs along with a phase change can transfer energy from cold regions to warm ones.

## Conceptual questions

One way to make a fireplace more energy efficient is to have an external air supply for the combustion of its fuel. Another is to have room air circulate around the outside of the fire box and back into the room. Detail the methods of heat transfer involved in each.

On cold, clear nights horses will sleep under the cover of large trees. How does this help them keep warm?

## Problems&Exercises

At what wind speed does $-\text{10º}\text{C}$ air cause the same chill factor as still air at $-\text{29º}\text{C}$ ?

10 m/s

At what temperature does still air cause the same chill factor as $-5º\text{C}$ air moving at 15 m/s?

The “steam” above a freshly made cup of instant coffee is really water vapor droplets condensing after evaporating from the hot coffee. What is the final temperature of 250 g of hot coffee initially at $\text{90}\text{.}\text{0ºC}$ if 2.00 g evaporates from it? The coffee is in a Styrofoam cup, so other methods of heat transfer can be neglected.

$\text{85}\text{.}7º\text{C}$

(a) How many kilograms of water must evaporate from a 60.0-kg woman to lower her body temperature by $0\text{.}\text{750ºC}$ ?

(b) Is this a reasonable amount of water to evaporate in the form of perspiration, assuming the relative humidity of the surrounding air is low?

On a hot dry day, evaporation from a lake has just enough heat transfer to balance the of incoming heat from the Sun. What mass of water evaporates in 1.00 h from each square meter? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for the Effects of Heat Transfer .

1.48 kg

One winter day, the climate control system of a large university classroom building malfunctions. As a result, of excess cold air is brought in each minute. At what rate in kilowatts must heat transfer occur to warm this air by $\text{10}\text{.}\text{0ºC}$ (that is, to bring the air to room temperature)?

The Kilauea volcano in Hawaii is the world’s most active, disgorging about $\text{5}×{\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{3}$ of $\text{1200ºC}$ lava per day. What is the rate of heat transfer out of Earth by convection if this lava has a density of $\text{2700}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{kg/m}}^{3}$ and eventually cools to $\text{30ºC}$ ? Assume that the specific heat of lava is the same as that of granite.

During heavy exercise, the body pumps 2.00 L of blood per minute to the surface, where it is cooled by $2\text{.}\text{00ºC}$ . What is the rate of heat transfer from this forced convection alone, assuming blood has the same specific heat as water and its density is ?

A person inhales and exhales 2.00 L of $\text{37}\text{.}\text{0ºC}$ air, evaporating of water from the lungs and breathing passages with each breath.

(a) How much heat transfer occurs due to evaporation in each breath?

(b) What is the rate of heat transfer in watts if the person is breathing at a moderate rate of 18.0 breaths per minute?

(c) If the inhaled air had a temperature of $\text{20}\text{.}0º\text{C}$ , what is the rate of heat transfer for warming the air?

(d) Discuss the total rate of heat transfer as it relates to typical metabolic rates. Will this breathing be a major form of heat transfer for this person?

(a) 97.2 J

(b) 29.2 W

(c) 9.49 W

(d) The total rate of heat loss would be $29.2 W+9.49 W=38.7 W$ . While sleeping, our body consumes 83 W of power, while sitting it consumes 120 to 210 W. Therefore, the total rate of heat loss from breathing will not be a major form of heat loss for this person.

A glass coffee pot has a circular bottom with a 9.00-cm diameter in contact with a heating element that keeps the coffee warm with a continuous heat transfer rate of 50.0 W

(a) What is the temperature of the bottom of the pot, if it is 3.00 mm thick and the inside temperature is $\text{60}\text{.}\text{0ºC}$ ?

(b) If the temperature of the coffee remains constant and all of the heat transfer is removed by evaporation, how many grams per minute evaporate? Take the heat of vaporization to be 2340 kJ/kg.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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