# 8.5 Summary of key concepts

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This module is from Fundamentals of Mathematics by Denny Burzynski and Wade Ellis, Jr. This module reviews the key concepts from the chapter "Techniques of Estimation."

## Summary of key concepts

Estimation is the process of determining an expected value of a computation.

## Estimation by rounding ( [link] )

The rounding technique estimates the result of a computation by rounding the numbers involved in the computation to one or two nonzero digits. For example, $\text{512}+\text{896}$ can be estimated by $\text{500}+\text{900}=\text{1,400}$ .

When several numbers are close to one particular number, they are said to cluster near that particular number.

## Estimation by clustering ( [link] )

The clustering technique of estimation can be used when
1. there are more than two numbers to be added, and
2. clustering occurs.
For example, $\text{31}+\text{62}+\text{28}+\text{59}$ can be estimated by
$\left(\text{2}\cdot \text{30}\right)+\left(\text{2}\cdot \text{60}\right)=\text{60}+\text{120}=\text{180}$

## Distributive property ( [link] )

The distributive property is a characteristic of numbers that involves both addition and multiplication. For example,
$3\left(\text{4}+\text{6}\right)=\text{3}\cdot \text{4}+\text{3}\cdot \text{6}=\text{12}+\text{18}=\text{30}$

## Estimation using the distributive property ( [link] )

The distributive property can be used to obtain exact results for a multiplication.
For example,
$\text{15}\cdot \text{23}=\text{15}\cdot \left(\text{20}+\text{3}\right)=\text{15}\cdot \text{20}+\text{15}\cdot \text{3}=\text{300}+\text{45}=\text{345}$

## Estimation by rounding fractions ( [link] )

Estimation by rounding fractions commonly rounds fractions to $\frac{1}{4}$ , $\frac{1}{2}$ , $\frac{3}{4}$ , 0, and 1.
For example,
$\frac{5}{\text{12}}+\frac{5}{\text{16}}$ can be estimated by $\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{4}=\frac{3}{4}$

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
From 1973 to 1979, in the United States, there was an increase of 166.6% of Ph.D. social scien­tists to 52,000. How many were there in 1973?
7hours 36 min - 4hours 50 min