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The hypothesis test itself has an established process. This can be summarized as follows:
Notice that in performing the hypothesis test, you use α and not β . β is needed to help determine the sample size of the data that is used in calculating the p -value. Remember that the quantity 1 – β is called the Power of the Test . A high power is desirable. If the power is too low, statisticians typically increase the sample size while keeping α the same.If the power is low, the null hypothesis might not be rejected when it should be.
Assume H _{0} : μ = 9 and H _{a} : μ <9. Is this a left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed test?
This is a left-tailed test.
Assume H _{0} : μ ≤ 6 and H _{a} : μ >6. Is this a left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed test?
Assume H _{0} : p = 0.25 and H _{a} : p ≠ 0.25. Is this a left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed test?
This is a two-tailed test.
Draw the general graph of a left-tailed test.
Draw the graph of a two-tailed test.
A bottle of water is labeled as containing 16 fluid ounces of water. You believe it is less than that. What type of test would you use?
Your friend claims that his mean golf score is 63. You want to show that it is higher than that. What type of test would you use?
a right-tailed test
A bathroom scale claims to be able to identify correctly any weight within a pound. You think that it cannot be that accurate. What type of test would you use?
You flip a coin and record whether it shows heads or tails. You know the probability of getting heads is 50%, but you think it is less for this particular coin. What type of test would you use?
a left-tailed test
If the alternative hypothesis has a not equals ( ≠ ) symbol, you know to use which type of test?
Assume the null hypothesis states that the mean is at least 18. Is this a left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed test?
This is a left-tailed test.
Assume the null hypothesis states that the mean is at most 12. Is this a left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed test?
Assume the null hypothesis states that the mean is equal to 88. The alternative hypothesis states that the mean is not equal to 88. Is this a left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed test?
This is a two-tailed test.
Data from Amit Schitai. Director of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. LBCC.
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Data from energy.gov. Available online at http://energy.gov (accessed June 27. 2013).
Data from Gallup®. Available online at www.gallup.com (accessed June 27, 2013).
Data from Growing by Degrees by Allen and Seaman.
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Data from the American Automobile Association. Available online at www.aaa.com (accessed June 27, 2013).
Data from the American Library Association. Available online at www.ala.org (accessed June 27, 2013).
Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available online at http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes291111.htm.
Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at www.cdc.gov (accessed June 27, 2013)
Data from the U.S. Census Bureau, available online at http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html (accessed June 27, 2013).
Data from the United States Census Bureau. Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/language/.
Data from Toastmasters International. Available online at http://toastmasters.org/artisan/detail.asp?CategoryID=1&SubCategoryID=10&ArticleID=429&Page=1.
Data from Weather Underground. Available online at www.wunderground.com (accessed June 27, 2013).
Federal Bureau of Investigations. “Uniform Crime Reports and Index of Crime in Daviess in the State of Kentucky enforced by Daviess County from 1985 to 2005.” Available online at http://www.disastercenter.com/kentucky/crime/3868.htm (accessed June 27, 2013).
“Foothill-De Anza Community College District.” De Anza College, Winter 2006. Available online at http://research.fhda.edu/factbook/DAdemofs/Fact_sheet_da_2006w.pdf.
Johansen, C., J. Boice, Jr., J. McLaughlin, J. Olsen. “Cellular Telephones and Cancer—a Nationwide Cohort Study in Denmark.” Institute of Cancer Epidemiology and the Danish Cancer Society, 93(3):203-7. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11158188 (accessed June 27, 2013).
Rape, Abuse&Incest National Network. “How often does sexual assault occur?” RAINN, 2009. Available online at http://www.rainn.org/get-information/statistics/frequency-of-sexual-assault (accessed June 27, 2013).
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