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Television is also broadcast on electromagnetic waves. Since the waves must carry a great deal of visual as well as audio information, each channel requires a larger range of frequencies than simple radio transmission. TV channels utilize frequencies in the range of 54 to 88 MHz and 174 to 222 MHz. (The entire FM radio band lies between channels 88 MHz and 174 MHz.) These TV channels are called VHF (for very high frequency ). Other channels called UHF (for ultra high frequency ) utilize an even higher frequency range of 470 to 1000 MHz.

The TV video signal is AM, while the TV audio is FM. Note that these frequencies are those of free transmission with the user utilizing an old-fashioned roof antenna. Satellite dishes and cable transmission of TV occurs at significantly higher frequencies and is rapidly evolving with the use of the high-definition or HD format.

Calculating wavelengths of radio waves

Calculate the wavelengths of a 1530-kHz AM radio signal, a 105.1-MHz FM radio signal, and a 1.90-GHz cell phone signal.

Strategy

The relationship between wavelength and frequency is c = size 12{c = fλ} {} , where c = 3 . 00 × 10 8 m / s size 12{c=3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } {m} slash {s} } {} is the speed of light (the speed of light is only very slightly smaller in air than it is in a vacuum). We can rearrange this equation to find the wavelength for all three frequencies.

Solution

Rearranging gives

λ = c f . size 12{λ= { {c} over {f} } } {}

(a) For the f = 1530 kHz size 12{f="1530"" kHz"} {} AM radio signal, then,

λ = 3.00 × 10 8 m/s 1530 × 10 3 cycles/s = 196 m. size 12{ matrix { λ {} # = { {3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s"} over {"1530" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " cycles/s"} } {} ##{} # ="196 m" "." {} } } {}

(b) For the f = 105.1 MHz size 12{f="105" "." 1`"MHz"} {} FM radio signal,

λ = 3.00 × 10 8 m/s 105.1 × 10 6 cycles/s = 2.85 m. size 12{ matrix { λ {} # = { {3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s"} over {"1530" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " cycles/s"} } {} ##{} # ="196 m" "." {} } } {}

(c) And for the f = 1.90 GHz size 12{f=1 "." "90"`"GHz"} {} cell phone,

λ = 3 . 00 × 10 8 m/s 1.90 × 10 9 cycles/s = 0.158 m. size 12{ matrix { λ {} # = { {3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s"} over {"1530" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " cycles/s"} } {} ##{} # ="196 m" "." {} } } {}

Discussion

These wavelengths are consistent with the spectrum in [link] . The wavelengths are also related to other properties of these electromagnetic waves, as we shall see.

The wavelengths found in the preceding example are representative of AM, FM, and cell phones, and account for some of the differences in how they are broadcast and how well they travel. The most efficient length for a linear antenna, such as discussed in Production of Electromagnetic Waves , is λ / 2 size 12{ {λ} slash {2} } {} , half the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. Thus a very large antenna is needed to efficiently broadcast typical AM radio with its carrier wavelengths on the order of hundreds of meters.

One benefit to these long AM wavelengths is that they can go over and around rather large obstacles (like buildings and hills), just as ocean waves can go around large rocks. FM and TV are best received when there is a line of sight between the broadcast antenna and receiver, and they are often sent from very tall structures. FM, TV, and mobile phone antennas themselves are much smaller than those used for AM, but they are elevated to achieve an unobstructed line of sight. (See [link] .)

The first photograph shows a large tower used to broadcast TV signals. The tower is alternately painted red and white along the length. The antennas are shown as small structures on top of the tower. The second photograph shows a photo of a mobile phone tower. The tower has two ring shaped structures at its top most point.
(a) A large tower is used to broadcast TV signals. The actual antennas are small structures on top of the tower—they are placed at great heights to have a clear line of sight over a large broadcast area. (credit: Ozizo, Wikimedia Commons) (b) The NTT Dokomo mobile phone tower at Tokorozawa City, Japan. (credit: tokoroten, Wikimedia Commons)

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, General physics ii phy2202ca. OpenStax CNX. Jul 05, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11538/1.2
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