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Turning to electrical data, the most important device electrical data is a plot of threshold voltage versus gate length for the NMOS devices. Figure 7.40 shows typical plots of threshold voltage versus gate length. In this figure, the RTA anneal temperature and times were varied to show the various profiles that can be expected. A more typical plot is represented by the 1000°C RTA profile, showing a peak value around 1-2 microns with a tail off for longer or shorter gate lengths.

Figure 7.40: A plot of Threshold Voltage vs. Gate Length for NMOS devices(given in next module)

Gate oxide thickness measurements are also required. Be careful here if oxide thickness is measured with capacitance-voltage (C-V) methods, since quantum effects in very thin oxides (less than 5nm) can lead to inaccuracies because the actual location of the peak concentration of the accumulation charge is not at the interface as classic physics predicts but a short distance into the silicon. Use the QUANTUM model in ATLAS to match accumulation capacitance with oxide thickness for very thin oxides.

Other useful electrical input information is data that won’t be used now but later for the calibration process itself, testing the predictive nature of the simulation. Typical device characteristics used for predictive testing includes threshold voltage versus gate length measurements for a non-zero substrate bias.

7.8.2: Tuning Oxidation Parameters

During oxidation, interstitials are injected into the silicon substrate by the advancing interface. The first parameter to tune is the fraction of consumed silicon atoms that are re-injected back into the substrate as interstitials. In ATHENA, the related tuning parameter is called THETA.0 and is defined in the INTERSTITIAL statement. THETA.0 has been found to be slightly different for wet and dry oxides. The default value is reasonably accurate for dry oxides but some tuning may be required for wet oxidation.

The major effect of interstitial injection during gate oxidation is to create enhanced diffusion of the threshold adjust implant. The measured threshold voltage of the final device is very sensitive to the dopant concentration near the silicon-gate oxide interface. Consequently, threshold voltage measurements are a sensitive indicator of interstitial behavior. Oxidation, however, is not the only source of interstitial injection. The source-drain and LDD implants also induce a large concentration of interstitials. In order to isolate oxidation enhanced diffusion, the threshold voltage of a long gate length device is used, preferably where L=20 µm or more, so that the threshold voltage will be little influenced by damage near the source-drain regions.

Interstitials injected by source-drain implant damage can travel up to 10 µm along the surface before recombination takes place. A gate length of 20 µm is recommended as the minimum gate length for calibration so this can allow the interstitials to diffuse 10 µm along the surface from both the source and drain ends without effecting diffusion near the center of the device. In summary, tuning THETA.0 involves the comparison of modeled and measured threshold voltage data for a long gate-length device.

Questions & Answers

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Eke Reply
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Missy Reply
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Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
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da
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Bhagvanji
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Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
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ya I also want to know the raman spectra
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Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
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Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
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Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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