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  • Describe the electric and magnetic waves as they move out from a source, such as an AC generator.
  • Explain the mathematical relationship between the magnetic field strength and the electrical field strength.
  • Calculate the maximum strength of the magnetic field in an electromagnetic wave, given the maximum electric field strength.

We can get a good understanding of electromagnetic waves    (EM) by considering how they are produced. Whenever a current varies, associated electric and magnetic fields vary, moving out from the source like waves. Perhaps the easiest situation to visualize is a varying current in a long straight wire, produced by an AC generator at its center, as illustrated in [link] .

A long straight gray wire with an A C generator at its center, functioning as a broadcast antenna for electromagnetic waves, is shown. The wave distributions at four different times are shown in four different parts. Part a of the diagram shows a long straight gray wire with an A C generator at its center. The time is marked t equals zero. The bottom part of the antenna is positive and the upper end of the antenna is negative. An electric field E acting upward is shown by an upward arrow. Part b of the diagram shows a long straight gray wire with an A C generator at its center. The time is marked t equals capital T divided by four. The antenna has no polarity marked and a wave is shown to emerge from the A C source. An electric field E acting upward as shown by an upward arrow. The electric field E propagates away from the antenna at the speed of light, forming part of the electromagnetic wave from the A C source. A quarter portion of the wave is shown above the horizontal axis. Part c of the diagram shows a long straight gray wire with an A C generator at its center. The time is marked t equals capital T divided by two. The bottom part of the antenna is negative and the upper end of the antenna is positive and a wave is shown to emerge from the A C source. The electric field E propagates away from the antenna at the speed of light, forming part of the electromagnetic wave from the A C source. A quarter portion of the wave is shown below the horizontal axis and a quarter portion of the wave is above the horizontal axis. Part d of the diagram shows a long straight gray wire with an AC generator at its center. The time is marked t equals capital T. The bottom part of the antenna is positive and the upper end of the antenna is negative. A wave is shown to emerge from the A C source. The electric field E propagates away from the antenna at the speed of light, forming part of the electromagnetic wave from the A C source. A quarter portion of the wave is shown above the horizontal axis followed by a half wave below the horizontal axis and then again a quarter of a wave above the horizontal axis.
This long straight gray wire with an AC generator at its center becomes a broadcast antenna for electromagnetic waves. Shown here are the charge distributions at four different times. The electric field ( E size 12{E} {} ) propagates away from the antenna at the speed of light, forming part of an electromagnetic wave.

The electric field    ( E size 12{E} {} ) shown surrounding the wire is produced by the charge distribution on the wire. Both the E size 12{E} {} and the charge distribution vary as the current changes. The changing field propagates outward at the speed of light.

There is an associated magnetic field    ( B size 12{B} {} ) which propagates outward as well (see [link] ). The electric and magnetic fields are closely related and propagate as an electromagnetic wave. This is what happens in broadcast antennae such as those in radio and TV stations.

Closer examination of the one complete cycle shown in [link] reveals the periodic nature of the generator-driven charges oscillating up and down in the antenna and the electric field produced. At time t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} , there is the maximum separation of charge, with negative charges at the top and positive charges at the bottom, producing the maximum magnitude of the electric field (or E size 12{E} {} -field) in the upward direction. One-fourth of a cycle later, there is no charge separation and the field next to the antenna is zero, while the maximum E size 12{E} {} -field has moved away at speed c size 12{c} {} .

As the process continues, the charge separation reverses and the field reaches its maximum downward value, returns to zero, and rises to its maximum upward value at the end of one complete cycle. The outgoing wave has an amplitude    proportional to the maximum separation of charge. Its wavelength     λ size 12{ left (λ right )} {} is proportional to the period of the oscillation and, hence, is smaller for short periods or high frequencies. (As usual, wavelength and frequency     f size 12{ left (f right )} {} are inversely proportional.)

Electric and magnetic waves: moving together

Following Ampere’s law, current in the antenna produces a magnetic field, as shown in [link] . The relationship between E size 12{E} {} and B size 12{B} {} is shown at one instant in [link] (a). As the current varies, the magnetic field varies in magnitude and direction.

Part a of the diagram shows a long straight gray wire with an A C generator at its center, functioning as a broadcast antenna. The antenna has a current I flowing vertically upward. The bottom end of the antenna is negative and the upper end of the antenna is positive. An electric field is shown to act vertically downward. The magnetic field lines B produced in the antenna are circular in direction around the wire. Part b of the diagram shows a long straight gray wire with an A C generator at its center, functioning as a broadcast antenna. The electric field E and magnetic field B near the wire are shown perpendicular to each other. Part c of the diagram shows a long straight gray wire with an A C generator at its center, functioning as a broadcast antenna. The current is shown to flow in the antenna. The magnetic field varies with the current and propagates away from the antenna as a sine wave in the horizontal plane. The vibrations in the wave are marked as small arrows along the wave.
(a) The current in the antenna produces the circular magnetic field lines. The current ( I size 12{I} {} ) produces the separation of charge along the wire, which in turn creates the electric field as shown. (b) The electric and magnetic fields ( E size 12{E} {} and B size 12{B} {} ) near the wire are perpendicular; they are shown here for one point in space. (c) The magnetic field varies with current and propagates away from the antenna at the speed of light.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, General physics ii phy2202ca. OpenStax CNX. Jul 05, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11538/1.2
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