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Operating system-supported multithreading

When the operating system supports multiple threads per process, you can begin to use these threads to do simultaneous computational activity. There is still no requirement that these applications be executed on a multiprocessor system. When an application that uses four operating system threads is executed on a single processor machine, the threads execute in a time-shared fashion. If there is no other load on the system, each thread gets 1/4 of the processor. While there are good reasons to have more threads than processors for noncompute applications, it’s not a good idea to have more active threads than processors for compute-intensive applications because of thread-switching overhead. (For more detail on the effect of too many threads, see Appendix D, How FORTRAN Manages Threads at Runtime.

If you are using the POSIX threads library, it is a simple modification to request that your threads be created as operating-system rather rather than user threads, as the following code shows:


#define _REENTRANT /* basic 3-lines for threads */ #include<stdio.h>#include<pthread.h>#define THREAD_COUNT 2 void *SpinFunc(void *);int globvar; /* A global variable */ int index[THREAD_COUNT]; /* Local zero-based thread index */ pthread_t thread_id[THREAD_COUNT]; /* POSIX Thread IDs */ pthread_attr_t attr; /* Thread attributes NULL=use default */main() {int i,retval; pthread_t tid;globvar = 0;pthread_attr_init(&attr); /* Initialize attr with defaults */ pthread_attr_setscope(&attr, PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM); printf("Main - globvar=%d\n",globvar);for(i=0;i<THREAD_COUNT;i++) { index[i]= i; retval = pthread_create(&tid,&attr,SpinFunc,(void *) index[i]);printf("Main - creating i=%d tid=%d retval=%d\n",i,tid,retval); thread_id[i]= tid; }printf("Main thread - threads started globvar=%d\n",globvar);for(i=0;i<THREAD_COUNT;i++) { printf("Main - waiting for join %d\n",thread_id[i]); retval = pthread_join( thread_id[i], NULL ) ; printf("Main - back from join %d retval=%d\n",i,retval);} printf("Main thread - threads completed globvar=%d\n",globvar);}

The code executed by the master thread is modified slightly. We create an “attribute” data structure and set the PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM attribute to indicate that we would like our new threads to be created and scheduled by the operating system. We use the attribute information on the call to pthread_create( ) . None of the other code has been changed. The following is the execution output of this new program:


recs % create3 Main - globvar=0Main - creating i=0 tid=4 retval=0 SpinFunc me=0 - sleeping 1 seconds ...Main - creating i=1 tid=5 retval=0 Main thread - threads started globvar=0Main - waiting for join 4 SpinFunc me=1 - sleeping 2 seconds ...SpinFunc me=0 - wake globvar=0... SpinFunc me=0 - spinning globvar=1...SpinFunc me=1 - wake globvar=1... SpinFunc me=1 - spinning globvar=2...SpinFunc me=1 - done globvar=2... SpinFunc me=0 - done globvar=2...Main - back from join 0 retval=0 Main - waiting for join 5Main - back from join 1 retval=0 Main thread - threads completed globvar=2recs %

Now the program executes properly. When the first thread starts spinning, the operating system is context switching between all three threads. As the threads come out of their sleep( ) , they increment their shared variable, and when the final thread increments the shared variable, the other two threads instantly notice the new value (because of the cache coherency protocol) and finish the loop. If there are fewer than three CPUs, a thread may have to wait for a time-sharing context switch to occur before it notices the updated global variable.

With operating-system threads and multiple processors, a program can realistically break up a large computation between several independent threads and compute the solution more quickly. Of course this presupposes that the computation could be done in parallel in the first place.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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