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Multiple threads are also used in high performance database and Internet servers to improve the overall throughput of the server. With a single thread, the program can either be waiting for the next network request or reading the disk to satisfy the previous request. With multiple threads, one thread can be waiting for the next network transaction while several other threads are waiting for disk I/O to complete.

The following is an example of a simple multithreaded application. This example uses the IEEE POSIX standard interface for a thread library. If your system supports POSIX threads, this example should work. If not, there should be similar routines on your system for each of the thread functions. It begins with a single master thread that creates three additional threads. Each thread prints some messages, accesses some global and local variables, and then terminates:


#define_REENTRANT /* basic lines for threads */ #include<stdio.h>#include<pthread.h>#define THREAD_COUNT 3 void *TestFunc(void *);int globvar; /* A global variable */ int index[THREAD_COUNT]/* Local zero-based thread index */ pthread_t thread_id[THREAD_COUNT]; /* POSIX Thread IDs */ main() {int i,retval; pthread_t tid;globvar = 0;printf("Main - globvar=%d\n",globvar); for(i=0;i<THREAD_COUNT;i++) { index[i]= i; retval = pthread_create(&tid,NULL,TestFunc,(void *) index[i]);printf("Main - creating i=%d tid=%d retval=%d\n",i,tid,retval); thread_id[i]= tid; }printf("Main thread - threads started globvar=%d\n",globvar); for(i=0;i<THREAD_COUNT;i++) { printf("Main - waiting for join %d\n",thread_id[i]); retval = pthread_join( thread_id[i], NULL ) ; printf("Main - back from join %d retval=%d\n",i,retval);} printf("Main thread - threads completed globvar=%d\n",globvar);}void *TestFunc(void *parm) { int me,self;me = (int) parm; /* My own assigned thread ordinal */self = pthread_self(); /* The POSIX Thread library thread number */ printf("TestFunc me=%d - self=%d globvar=%d\n",me,self,globvar);globvar = me + 15; printf("TestFunc me=%d - sleeping globvar=%d\n",me,globvar);sleep(2); printf("TestFunc me=%d - done param=%d globvar=%d\n",me,self,globvar);}

Creating a thread

This figure shows a number of groupings of boxes, labeled global data, code, and stack. A couple discriptions and arrows labeled, executing, are arranged around the boxes.

The global shared areas in this case are those variables declared in the static area outside the main( ) code. The local variables are any variables declared within a routine. When threads are added, each thread gets its own function call stack. In C, the automatic variables that are declared at the beginning of each routine are allocated on the stack. As each thread enters a function, these variables are separately allocated on that particular thread’s stack. So these are the thread-local variables.

Unlike the fork( ) function, the pthread_create( ) function creates a new thread, and then control is returned to the calling thread. One of the parameters of the pthread_create( ) is the name of a function.

New threads begin execution in the function TestFunc( ) and the thread finishes when it returns from this function. When this program is executed, it produces the following output:

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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