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Electrostatic repulsion in the leaves of the charged electroscope separates them. The electrostatic force has a horizontal component that results in the leaves moving apart as well as a vertical component that is balanced by the gravitational force. Similarly, the electroscope can be negatively charged by contact with a negatively charged object.

Charging by induction

It is not necessary to transfer excess charge directly to an object in order to charge it. [link] shows a method of induction    wherein a charge is created in a nearby object, without direct contact. Here we see two neutral metal spheres in contact with one another but insulated from the rest of the world. A positively charged rod is brought near one of them, attracting negative charge to that side, leaving the other sphere positively charged.

This is an example of induced polarization    of neutral objects. Polarization is the separation of charges in an object that remains neutral. If the spheres are now separated (before the rod is pulled away), each sphere will have a net charge. Note that the object closest to the charged rod receives an opposite charge when charged by induction. Note also that no charge is removed from the charged rod, so that this process can be repeated without depleting the supply of excess charge.

Another method of charging by induction is shown in [link] . The neutral metal sphere is polarized when a charged rod is brought near it. The sphere is then grounded, meaning that a conducting wire is run from the sphere to the ground. Since the earth is large and most ground is a good conductor, it can supply or accept excess charge easily. In this case, electrons are attracted to the sphere through a wire called the ground wire, because it supplies a conducting path to the ground. The ground connection is broken before the charged rod is removed, leaving the sphere with an excess charge opposite to that of the rod. Again, an opposite charge is achieved when charging by induction and the charged rod loses none of its excess charge.

In part a, a pair of neutral metal spheres are in contact. In part b, a rod with positive signs is close to one surface of the sphere and the negative signs are shown on this surface toward the rod and positive signs are shown on the outermost face of the other sphere. In part c, the rod and the spheres are not in contact. The outermost surface of one sphere has negative signs and the outermost surface of another sphere has positive signs. In part d, the glass rod is not shown. The inner surfaces of the metallic spheres have opposite charges. One sphere has negative signs and the other has positive signs facing each other.
Charging by induction. (a) Two uncharged or neutral metal spheres are in contact with each other but insulated from the rest of the world. (b) A positively charged glass rod is brought near the sphere on the left, attracting negative charge and leaving the other sphere positively charged. (c) The spheres are separated before the rod is removed, thus separating negative and positive charge. (d) The spheres retain net charges after the inducing rod is removed—without ever having been touched by a charged object.
 In part a, a rod with positive sign is brought near a neutral metal sphere. One surface toward the rod has negative signs and the other surface has positive signs. In part b, a rod with positive sign is close to one surface of the sphere having negative signs and the other surface has low number of positive signs and a wire is attached to that face which is connected to the ground. In part c, a rod with positive sign is close to one surface of the sphere having negative signs and the other surface has low number of positive signs. In part d, the positive rod is absent, and the sphere has negative signs on it.
Charging by induction, using a ground connection. (a) A positively charged rod is brought near a neutral metal sphere, polarizing it. (b) The sphere is grounded, allowing electrons to be attracted from the earth’s ample supply. (c) The ground connection is broken. (d) The positive rod is removed, leaving the sphere with an induced negative charge.
Microscopic views of objects are shown. A positive rod with positive signs is close to an insulator. The negative ends of all the molecules of the insulator are aligned toward the rod and positive ends of all molecules shown as spheres are away from the rod. In part b, a negative rod with negative signs is close to an insulator. The positive ends of all the molecules of the insulator are aligned toward the rod and negative ends of all molecules shown as spheres are away from the rod. In part c, a rod with negative signs and insulator with the surface closer to the rod has positive signs. The other surface has negative signs.
Both positive and negative objects attract a neutral object by polarizing its molecules. (a) A positive object brought near a neutral insulator polarizes its molecules. There is a slight shift in the distribution of the electrons orbiting the molecule, with unlike charges being brought nearer and like charges moved away. Since the electrostatic force decreases with distance, there is a net attraction. (b) A negative object produces the opposite polarization, but again attracts the neutral object. (c) The same effect occurs for a conductor; since the unlike charges are closer, there is a net attraction.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Abe advanced level physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 11, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11534/1.3
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