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= 0V --------------------------(6.5)

Since the resistors are more or less temperature tracked therefore ratios remain temperature independent. Hence output voltage V o does not vary with temperature. Only mismatch in the input circuit (with respect to beta, V BE , I CO ) causes a finite V o (i.e. offset voltage), and with temperature variation this mismatch gates magnified and causes a drift of V 0

In Fig 6.26 it is seen that output transistor Q 12 and Q 13 have three times cross-sectional area as that of the emitter base junction of D4. Hence output transistors carry 3 times as much current as D4. From dc bias condition,

I Q12 = I Q13 = 3(I D4 ) = 308mA;

Because of this enhanced signal handling capacity MC1530 will drive load resistors as low as 1k to a maximum p-p swing of 11 volts with Vcc = ±6 volts. Also because of high quiescent current in output stage maximum power is dissipated in Q12, Q13. Most of the dissipated energy is sunk by the header but not without heating the chip. Hence during the operation invariably a temperature gradient and a set of isothermals are set up on the chip as shown in Fig (6.28).

As can be seen in Fig.(6.28) input pairs Q 2 and Q 4 , Q 1 and Q 5 are kept on the least isothermal, farthest away from the output transistors, and in close vicinity to each other. The result is that there is least heating of the input pairs because of high output power dissipation, maximum temperature tracking of the input pairs and diffusion profiles of the input pairs very closely match to one another. Because of close proximity and the resultant diffusion profile matching, V BE and betas of the input pairs of transistors very closely match hence very low input offset voltages and currents are caused typically V os =2mV. Because of excellent temperature tracking of the input pairs, the long term drift of temperature appears mainly as common mode signal thereby minimizing the long term drift of V os to 3.8µV/ o C. Both these parameters V os and low drift are indicative of proper layout of the devices on the chip.

As can be seen in Fig.(6.27) D 1, D 2 are in close proximity to Q 3 and the three are more or less on the same isothermal, D 3 is in close proximity to Q 10 as well as the two are on same isothermal, and D 4 is in close proximity to Q 13 . Each of these are bias current sources. Because of matching of the characteristics and because of temperature tracking of the devices in the current sources, each current source is the current mirror of the reference current. And because of the use of diode configuration of the transistor which results in heavy voltage shunt feedback the reference current are highly stabilised against temperature changes. This is also known as diode compensation. Hence almost drift free near ideal current sources are achieved. Because of the stability the bias sources, the ac performance of this chip is highly stabilised. The open loop gain A d = 72dB ± 1.5dB from T = -55 o C to T= +125 o C.

The monolithic IC chip MC 1530-31 is mounted on 10 pins TO-5 packages. Two battery biases V cc ,

-V EE , output and ground leads require four pins, two pins are used for inputs and four pins are for internal connections.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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